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Be prepared for the best in education 

Students desiring to attend Brigham Young University have an 
important date to remember this month. April 30 is the dead- 
line for new applications for admission to autumn semester 
1967. Students transferring from other colleges have until July 
31. Also, all new freshmen must take the American College 
Test. The test will not be given again before the application 
deadline, but because some students have been unable to take 
it, BYU will accept scores of the May 13 American College 
Test. You have until April 22 to apply for it with your high 
school counselor. Nevertheless, your application must reach 
BYU by April 30. Although enrollment is limited, BYU wants 
good scholars, and if you qualify, be sure to take the necessary 
steps, including investigation of housing and financial possi- 
bilities. An education at BYU is something special. High aca- 
demic standards combined with physical and spiritual training 
in an ideal social climate add up to a superior education. 


April 22— Application deadline 
for May 13 American Col- 
lege Test. 

April 30— Deadline for submit- 
ting applications for autumn 
semester admission to BYU. 

May 31— Deadline for submit- 
ting applications for first 
term of Summer School. 

June 5-10 — Special workshops 
and conferences. 

June 12-July 14— First term of 
Summer School. 

July 15-Aug. 17— Second term 
of Summer School. 

Sept. 12-13— New student orien- 

Sept. 14, 15, 16— Autumn semes- 
ter registration. 

Sept. 18— Classes begin. 

Brigham Young University 

P R O V O 


Memo to Our Readers: 

The Voice of the Church 

April 1967 

Volume 70, Number 4 

This year marks the 100th anniver- 
sary of the opening of the Salt Lake 
Tabernacle — general conference was 
held in that wonderful old pioneer 
building for the first time in October 
1866. In commemoration of this his- 
toric event, the Era is devoting part of 
this issue to articles and pictures on 
the Tabernacle, organ; choir, guide 
service, and other features of Temple 
Square that have helped attract world- 
wide attention and made the square a 
mecca for visitors to Utah. One mil- 
lion three hundred and thirty-seven 
thousand people visited Temple Square 
in 1966, and untold millions listened 
to broadcasts of the choir and organ 
and saw or heard the telecasts or 
broadcasts of general conference 

On Temple Square today, the new 
mingles with the old. A newly com- 
pleted structure, the Visitors' Center, 
houses much of the art developed for 
the Mormon Pavilion at the New York 
World's Fair, as well as new paintings 
designed to interest and tell the story 
of the Church to visitors. Some of these 
are reproduced in full color in this 
issue. Others will appear in later 

Our cover is from a painting by Dale 
Kilbourn and illustrates one of the 
stories that have been told over the 
years as to how President Brigham 
Young envisioned the shape of the 
Tabernacle roof. 

Managing Editor 

Regular Features 

45 The Era of Youth 

62 The LDS Scene 

66 Teaching: The Techniques of Doer Teaching (part 2), Ernest 
Eberhard, Jr. 

84 Today's Family: Step Softly into Spring 

87 Home, Sweet Home 

88, 90, 94, 100 The Spoken Word from Temple Square, Richard L Evans 
89 The Church Moves On 

Buffs and Rebuffs 

Best of Movies, Howard Pearson 

Melchizedek Priesthood: Authority in the Home 


Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations. 
Home Teaching Committee, Music Committee, Church School System, and 
other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The Improvement Era Offices, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 

Presiding Bishopric's Page: Strengthen the Bridge Between Adult 
Leaders and Youth 

100 These Times: The Law of Families, G. Homer Durham 

104 End of an Era 

100th Anniversary of Opening of the Tabernacle 

2 The Editor's Page: Temple Square, President David 0. McKay 

4 Bring on the Lumber, Stewart L. Grow 

10 Opening of the Tabernacle, Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

14 Tabernacle Organ, Jay M. Todd 

22 Focal Point for Important Events, Eleanor Knowles 

26 Tabernacle Choir, Mabel Jones Gabbott 

32 Full-Color Photographs of Temple Square 

34 The Era Asks: What Do Tourists Want to Learn at Temple Square? 

42 Popular Tales 

Special Features 

40 Dispensations of the Gospel 

44 Family Movie of the Year 

59 When a Hero Meets a Queen, Millie Foster Cheesman 

73 The Restoration, S. Dilworth Young 

76 Joseph Smith, Popularizer or Restorer? (part 2), Milton V. Backman, Jr. 

70, 80, 104 Poetry 

David 0. McKay and Richard L Evans, Editors; Doyle L Green, Managing Editor; Albert L Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; Mabel Jones Gabbott, Jay M. Todd, 
Eleanor Knowles, Editorial Associates; Florence B. Pinnock, Today's Family Editor; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon, Era of Youth 
Associate Editor; Keith Montague, Era of Youth Art Director; Ralph Reynolds, General Art Director; Norman F. Price, Staff Artist. 

G. Homer Durham, Franklin S. Harris, Jr., Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry, Alma A. Gardiner, Contributing Editors. 

G. Carlos Smith, Jr., General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott, Business Manager; A. Glen Snarr, Acting Business 

Manager and Subscription Director; Thayer Evans, S. Glenn Smith, Advertising Representatives. 

©General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1966, and published by the 

Mutual Improvement Associations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Subscription price, $3.00 a year, in advance; 

multiple subscriptions. 2 years, $5.75; 3 years, $8.25; each succeeding year, $2.50 a year added to the three-year price; 35$ single copy, except for 

special issues. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second-class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, 

act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 1918. 

The Improvement Era is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts but welcomes contributions. Manuscripts are paid for on acceptance and must be 

accompanied by sufficient postage for delivery and return. 

Thirty days' notice is required for change of address. When ordering a change, please include address slip from a recent issue of the magazine. Address 

changes cannot be made unless the old address as well as the new one is included. 

April 1967 

IVin file Sciuare 

The Editor's Page 

1 *s 

■■■■ lkr**fvlMB 

ft & wt' «!9 

By President 
David 0. McKay 

• Temple Square is indeed the 
physical focal point of The 
Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-day Saints. 

Here tourists and visitors 

come to see and hear the story 

of the Church from our guides. 

Here members come to be 

joined as eternal families in 

holy temple ordinances. 

Here, in upper rooms of the temple, the General 

Authorities meet often and receive inspiration and 

guidance for leading the Church 

Here, in the Tabernacle twice each year, General 
Authorities meet with Saints assembled for general 

Here the Tabernacle Choir has sung on the radio 
networks since 1929 and has enriched our meetings 
and gladdened our hearts since pioneer times. The 
Tabernacle Choir has attained, through merit, out- 
standing recognition as one of the great choral organi- 
zations of the world. It merits the gratitude of all 
members of the Church. I do not know of another 
choir in the world that gives so much time and finan- 
cial means in their service as do the members of this 
choral group. 

The Salt Lake Tabernacle is now completing one 
hundred years of use. This fall the historic structure 
will begin its second century of service. 

To attend general conference in the Tabernacle, 
as we do each spring and fall, Latter-day Saints come 
by bus, train, automobile, and airplane. In the vast 
throng are men and women who, in years gone by, 
came to conference in vehicles drawn by horses and 
mules. In my grandmother's day, she and others, on 
more than one occasion, walked thirty-five to fifty 
miles to Temple Square, and "sang all the way"! But 
no matter what the means of conveyance, the signifi- 
cant thing is that for a century now in the Tabernacle, 
and previous to that in other buildings of the Church, 
members have come from all parts of the Church to 
attend conferences. 

Although dropping a pin has been associated with 
demonstrating the acoustics of the Tabernacle for as 
long as I can recall, when I was a junior member 
of the Twelve, vigorous speaking in the Tabernacle 
was the order of the day. We had to stand at the pulpit 
and literally shout. Older Church members will re- 
member how, years ago, when radio was comparatively 
new, some loudspeakers in the Tabernacle were appar- 
ently controlled by the same switches used by radio 
station KSL, switches that did not seem to work unless 
a broadcast was in progress. When we were broad- 
casting, those seated in the Tabernacle did not have 
to strain to hear each word. Now for many years our 
very whispers are ofttimes taken by electronic fingers 
and literally flung around the earth. 

Today millions may invite the image of the Taber- 

Improvement Era 

nacle, its music, and its speakers into their own living 
rooms, just by turning on television sets that are 
properly tuned. In a similar manner, a human heart 
must be properly tuned to receive the glorious re- 
stored gospel. 

Whenever I see Temple Square literally overflowing 
with Saints and know that there are additional thou- 
sands who would like to come, I wish there were 
some way to provide room for them in the Tabernacle. 
Whenever I see the Tabernacle crowded to capacity, 
which is often, I have a re-affirmation of the strength 
of the Church. It is a fact, as you know, that if you 
have a moving body and you increase its speed, the 
momentum becomes great. If you add weight to that 
body and increase its speed, the momentum is still 
greater. That is what is occurring in the Church— a 
great body of members moving with an acceleration 
never before known to the Church. There is nothing 
that can stop the progress of truth, except our own 
weaknesses or failure to do our duty. 

The Tabernacle— the Salt Lake Tabernacle— I cannot 
ever recall thinking of it as just another building of 
wood and stone. In my parents' home, at my own 
fireside, and in the family circles of my children, the 
Tabernacle has always been as a cherished friend. I 
am pleased to join with members of the Church and 
all our friends throughout the world in wishing for 
the Tabernacle in its centennial year continuance of 
its mighty mission on the earth. O 

1 1 



1 1 

1! 1 ( 











1 1 

1 1 

...., _ 

i i 



1 1 

April 1967 



T s^mmm 

William H. Folsom, Church architect in 1860's. 
Henry Grow, an architect of the Tabernacle. 

President Young 

in a sermon 

urged the men 

owning sawmills to 

Bring on 
the Lumber 

and the carpenters 

and joiners to 

come help use it up. 

The Building of the Tabernacle 

By Stewart L. Grow 

Illustrated by Sherry Thompson 

Photos by Eldon Linschoten 
& Lorin Wiggins 

• The completion of the Great Tabernacle for Octo- 
ber conference of 1867 produced both wonder and 
gratitude— wonder because of the success of the unique 

Dr. Stewart L. Grow is director, Institute of Government 
Service, and professor of political science and history at 
Brigham Young University. He wrote his masters thesis on 
the building of the Tabernacle and is a great-grandson of 
Henry Grow, one of the Tabernacle designers and builders. 
Brother Grow is a Sunday School teacher. 

Improvement Era 

Sprinkling system can immediately extinguish a fire. 

I Cracked timbers were bound together with rawhide. 

and daring design; and gratitude because the Taber- 
nacle provided the Saints with the first indoor "meet- 
inghouse" large enough for conferences. For over 
thirty years, they had been obliged to hold conferences 
on outdoor "meeting grounds," in overcrowded halls, 
or in open-air boweries. 

It was during April conference of 1863 that Presi- 
dent Daniel Hammer Wells, second counselor to 
Brigham Young and the Church official in charge of 
public works, announced, "Right here we want to 
build a tabernacle to accommodate the saints at our 
general conference . . . that will comfortably seat some 
10,000 people." (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 10, p. 139.) 

Even the pioneers, used to great undertakings, must 
have been somewhat startled by the size of the pro- 
posed tabernacle, whose construction was to be under- 
taken in an area that was not yet served by a railroad 
and in which nails, bolts, and other commonplace 
building necessities were most difficult to obtain. 
However, in his talk President Wells left no time for 
hesitancy or doubt; he promptly proceeded to divide 
the city into districts for the contribution of labor 
and supplies. President Heber C. Kimball, Elder 
Orson Hyde, and President Brigham Young, in suc- 
ceeding speeches, also supported the building of a 

Action quickly followed. By April 18, surveyor 
Jesse W. Fox was on the temple block surveying for 
the tabernacle foundation. By June 3, the founda- 
tion was nearly completed. Progress was so good, 
and interest so high, that the Deseret News printed on 
June 3, 1863, a general plan of the proposed taber- 
nacle, which had been furnished by Church Architect 
William H. Folsom: 

"Dimensions on the ground, 150 feet wide; 250 
feet long, with semi-circle ends making one hundred 
feet of straight work on sides of building. The roof 
will be supported by 46 piers 2 by 9 feet and 20 feet 
high, from which an elliptic arch will be sprung of 
44 ft. rise. From floor to ceiling, 64 feet; width in 
clear, 132 feet; length 232 ft. in clear. There will be 

an elevation in the floor of 16 ft., which will give every 
person in the house good opportunity of seeing the 
speaker, which is always desirable. Between the piers 
will be openings for doors and windows, which can 
be thrown open at pleasure, which will make it cool 
and pleasant in summer and warm and comfortable in 
the winter. 

"The sides of the building outside will be 45 ft. high 
from floor level to eaves of cornice. Roof, quarter 
pitch with attic in centre, 50 ft. wide by 150 ft. long, 
on which will stand three octagon domes or ventilators. 

"The arches will be formed with lattice work 9 ft. 
deep in the smallest part, with an increase in the 
centre and outer end, forming and corresponding with 
the pitch of the roof. The roof will be self-supporting 
without a pillar. 

"It is the intention to have it enclosed this fall, and 
when finished will seat nearly 9,000 persons." 

Although work started out energetically in 1863, 
little was done except the laying of the foundation 
and the starting of work on the rock piers, or columns, 
that support the roof. The red sandstone for the piers 
was quarried in Red Butte Canyon, just above Camp 
(now Fort) Douglas. 

The cornerstone was laid on July 26, 1864, but work 
progressed slowly and was confined to the completion 
of the piers. No further progress was reported until 
September 1, 1865, when Henry Grow was placed in 
charge of the project and he and a small group of men 
started work on the roof. 

Reasons for the slow progress up to that time are 
lost in the past. It may have been that the tremendous 
volume of timbers and lumber needed for the structure 
had delayed it. However, an even more probable 
cause may be found in the fact that a change was 
made in the plans for the roof, which is a major part 
of the building. It will be remembered that the first 
published plans, quoted above, provided for a building 
with a large attic, a quarter-pitch roof, lattice arches 
of varying widths to conform to the shape of the roof, 
and outside walls 45 feet high to the cornice. In the 

April 1967 

Assembly Hall viewed 
from Tabernacle. 

Wooden dowels 

wedged in tightly 

hold the timbers together. 


finished building, none of these items is present. It 
appears, therefore, that the plans originally announced 
by Church Architect Folsom were modified. It is 
not known whether Henry Grow, who is credited with 
being the architect of the building, formulated the 
original plans announced by Folsom and then changed 
them, or whether Architect Folsom or someone else 
created the first plans, which were changed in favor 
of Henry Grow's. 

Prior to joining the Church, Henry Grow had been 
a bridge builder in Pennsylvania. When he joined the 
Church and moved West, he procured the right to use 
what he described as the Remington patent of lattice 
bridges. He used this patent successfully in building 
bridges across the Weber and Jordan rivers, and it 
was for this reason that Brigham Young asked him to 
build the roof of the Tabernacle after the same lattice 
pattern. The relationship between Henry Grow's 
bridges and the type of construction in the Tabernacle 
roof can be observed in photographs available of the 
two structures. 

The design and construction of the arches was the 
most difficult part of the building. They were re- 
quired to span a width of 132 feet without any pillars 
to support them. They had to be constructed prac- 
tically without nails or bolts or steel bracing. The 
design that was finally used involved shaping the 
timbers to match the curve of the roof and arranging 
them in the Remington patent lattice pattern. The 
timbers were bound together by ingenious devices. 
Where several of them crossed, a hole was bored 
completely through and a round wooden dowel driven 
into the hole so that about three to four inches of 
dowel extended on each side of the planks. These 
extending dowel ends were then split, and a wooden 
wedge was driven firmly into each split end. This 
technique produced the same general effect as if 
the timbers had been bolted tightly together. 

Wherever the timbers cracked, they were reinforced 
by being tightly wrapped with wet, or green, rawhide 
strips. Since rawhide shrinks when it dries, this 

process resulted in effective reinforcement of the 
weakened spots. ( The building is checked periodically, 
and the rawhide-strip reinforced timbers are still in 
excellent condition.) By the application of such in- 
genuity, it was possible to construct the huge roof 
arches with no nails and only a few bolts. Although it 
was slow work and little progress seemed evident dur- 
ing 1865, it appears that considerable effort was 
concentrated on preparing the roof arches, because 
with the coming of spring in 1866 work on the roof 
went forward rapidly. The center, or north-south, 
arches were first put in place; shortly after they were 
firmly lodged, the sheeting of that section of the 
roof was commenced. By June 21, 1866, the Deseret 
Neivs could report that the "sheeting of the roof of 
the new Tabernacle was beginning to glisten in the 
strong glare of the sun." After the center arches were 
in place, President Young directed that the west end 
be constructed next, because he had now decided that 
the organ should be built there. 

By April conference of 1867, it appeared possible 
that the Tabernacle could be completed by the next 
October. This possibility made the completion of the 
Tabernacle a favorite subject of conference sermons. 
Because of inclement weather, the first session con- 
vened in the Old Tabernacle, where there was far 
too little room for the Saints. Apostle George A. 
Smith observed that "although in the past Mormonism 
had seemed to flourish best out-of-doors where there 
was more room, this circumstance had worn heavily 
upon the lungs of the Elders and especially, of the 
Presidency, who had been under the necessity of 
speaking to very large audiences in the open air." It 
was, therefore, very important that the Tabernacle 
should be made habitable as soon as possible. ( Deseret 
News, July 10, 1867. ) President Young, in his sermon, 
urged the "men owning saw mills to bring on the 
lumber to finish the Tabernacle and the carpenters 
and joiners to come and help use it up" so that the 
Tabernacle could be finished in time For October con- 
ference of 1867. In that same conference, Truman O. 

Improvement Era 

Aluminum roof was put in place in 1947. 

Original windows in Tabernacle show distortion. 

. I 

Many thought the 

roof would cave in when the 


was removed. 

Angell was once again appointed as Church architect. 
Brother Angell had previously held that position but 
had resigned because of ill health, which seemed to 
be brought on, in part, by the strain under which he 
worked while doing architectural designing. William 
H. Folsom had succeeded him. Now Brother Angell's 
health was somewhat restored, and immediately after 
his reappointment he turned his attention to designing 
the interior of the Tabernacle. 

It is an interesting commentary on the building of 
the Tabernacle that it was not until the roof was well 
under construction in 1866 that President Young de- 
cided that the organ and choir seats were to be located 
in the west end; and it was not until the reappoint- 
ment of Truman O. Angell as Church architect, in 
April 1867, that the interior design of the building 
was commenced. This author's research has led him 
to the conclusion that there were no overall compre- 
hensive and detailed plans drawn for the Tabernacle. 
In the Henry Grow family there is a strong tradition 
to this effect. George and Otto Grow, sons of Henry, 
have both affirmed that the roof was constructed from 
a rough sketch drawn by Brigham Young and Henry 
Grow and from details that Henry Grow drew as he 
went along. Brother Angell's diary makes clear that 
the interior was all designed after April conference of 
1867, while the exterior of the Tabernacle was ap- 
proaching its finishing stages. These items emphasize 
both the genius and good fortune that attended the 
construction of that remarkable building. 

President Young's vigorous requests at April con- 
ference for labor and supplies resulted in large con- 
tributions of both. Such rapid strides were soon being 
made that the newspapers published frequent and 
interesting articles on the Tabernacle's progress. One, 
in the May 23, 1867, Telegraph, answered the many 
inquiries about the slate-colored Tabernacle roof by 
reporting that the color was achieved by "lamp black, 
tallow, and salt. To forty gallons of lime liquid, 
colored to suit the notion, add 5 lbs. of tallow and salt 
as with ordinary whitewash." Other articles reported 

Illogical as it may seem 

to some — and a testimony of 

divine guidance to others - 

there was no overall 

plan for the 


April 1967 

on the huge piles of lath, sand, and lime awaiting 
workmen and on the large number of workers who 
were contributing their labor and "moving about with 
a heartiness that indicated a love of their work." 
On October 3, the Telegraph reported that "all the 
scaffolding was taken down without the slightest 
accident." That achievement meant much more than 
just a dangerous project completed with safety, for 
there were many critics who, during the building's 
construction, had expressed doubts that the roof 
would hold when the scaffolding was removed. Such 
doubts seemed justified when such a huge unsupported 
roof was being built from an unproved design that 
involved a unique and creative architectural approach. 
Such expressions as, "It will fall down and kill us all," 
had caused Henry Grow much mental anguish. But 
his genius and vision, along with that of Brigham 
Young, was proven— the roof held! Its strength has 
now endured through a century of storms to become 
the prototype for much modern construction. 

While completion of the roof had been going on 
successfully, rapid progress was also being made in 
the interior, following the designs of Truman O. Angell. 
His interesting diary records the progress in con- 
siderable detail. In it he writes of his consistent con- 
tacts with President Brigham Young in working out 
such details of the interior as location of the organ 
and the various stairways, the slope of the floor, and 

The Tabernacle under construction. 

the design of the seats, the windows, and the doors. 
On August 18, he made an interesting entry that 
should give understanding and mental, if not physical, 
comfort to the long-legged members of the Church. 
He wrote, "I assisted in getting lines on the floor to 
set the seats by . . . and they seem to be very close to- 
gether, but I think we ought to consent to seat close 
for our friends sake etc. a few hundred more can get 
seated by this means." 

For the first meeting in the Tabernacle, new seats 
were installed in only the front portion of the building; 
old seats, taken from the Big Bowery, were used in the 
rest of the hall. 

The excitement of the great drive to complete the 
Tabernacle for the October conference was climaxed 
by an excellent article in the Salt Lake Telegraph of 
October 6, 1867. The following are excerpts: 

"Brother Henry Grow, the designer and builder 
of the Tabernacle, furnishes us with a large propor- 
tion of the following particulars: 

"The form of the building was the design of Pres. 
Brigham Young, who was desirous that the lattice 
work principle should be introduced into the con- 
struction of this large edifice. 

"The maximum number of men employed at any 
one time in the construction of the building was 205, 
and the average for the last three weeks has been 137. 
These figures do not include laborers nor plaster- 
ers. We have not the exact figures, but we understand 
that about 70 men were engaged in plastering the 
inside of the building. 

"Mr. Grow thinks that any person who has not seen 
the building can have a very good idea of the roof 
by imagining the back or shell of a common eastern 
ground turtle of huge proportions, but it is more 
frequently likened to the hull of an old fashioned 
ship, without any keel, and turned topsy turvy. 

"Above the piers there is over one million feet of 
lumber; in the floor 80,000 feet; in the joists 100,000, 
in the sleepers 30,000; in the aggregate one million 
five hundred thousand feet. The roof is covered with 
350,000 shingles, besides a space at the top, averaging 
60 x 130 feet, which is covered with 'patent roofing.' 

"The stand covers 7,500 feet of surface. The front 
of the stand is a segment of a circle. Before it are a 
seat and desk for the bishops and others who adminis- 
ter the sacrament. The first seat in the centre of 
the stand or platform is for the Presidency of the 
Stake, the next for the Quorum of the Twelve, the 
third for the First Presidency. Back of these are seats 
for a choir of 150 singers, with the great organ, yet un- 
finished, behind them. On the right and left are seats 
for from 800 to 1,000 persons. 

"More than three fourths of the timbers were sup- 

improvement Era 

plied by Elder Jos. A. Young up to within a few 
months; since which several hundred thousand feet 
of finishing lumber was furnished by President Wells, 
and a large quantity also obtained from Elders Fera- 
morz Little, Samuel A. Woolley, and from a few others. 

"The work from beginning to end has been closely 
supervised by President Young, who in this, as in 
everything else of a public character, 'has been in all 
and through all' and encouraged by his confidence all 
engaged in it. 

"President Wells has been most assiduous in his 
labors, superintending and furnishing everything. 
Bishop John Sharp, as Asst. Superintendent of Public 
Works, has rendered a very efficient share of labor, 
and Elder John D. T. McAllister was constant in his 
superintendence of the laborers, and had under his 
direction over a hundred men and thirty teams work- 
ing. It is a grand building of which the Saints have 
reason to be proud, and we but echo the feelings of 
every faithful Saint in wishing a lengthened life to 
Pres. Young, that he therein may long continue to 
instruct and lead Israel to the accomplishment of the 
designs and purposes of the Most High." 

When the Tabernacle was first used, there was no 
gallery in the building, and the unbroken sweep of the 
great arched dome must have been impressive. The 

gallery, which was added in 1870, made three, great 
contributions: it provided many additional seats, it 
improved the beauty of the interior, and it greatly 
improved the acoustics. In fact, until the gallery was 
added, the now famous acoustics of the Tabernacle 
were poor because of excessive reverberation. 

The Tabernacle was thus prepared for its first 
conference. In the century that has followed, it has 
served as a great religious and cultural center for 
Latter-dav Saints and their friends. The love and 
labor, the genius and generosity, the intellect and in- 
spiration that the builders of the Tabernacle put into 
that remarkable building in order to complete it in 
1867 merit both our wonder and appreciation in 1967. 


April 1967 

Tabernacle and organ at about 1900. 

Plaster is knit together with horsehair. 




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,,:: .:: 

Significant history 

was being made in 1867, 

including the 

Opening of the 

for October conference. 

By Albert L Zobell, Jr. 
Research Editor 

• The completion of the transcontinental telegraph at 
Great Salt Lake City in October 1861 had brought to 
the nation a new awareness of its broad horizons. 
Newspapers could receive press dispatches instan- 
taneously and make their communities aware. This was 
one of the theories of the new age. Practice proved 
differently. Wednesday morning, September 14, 1864, 
the Daily Telegraph reported to its Great Salt Lake 
City readers: "The wire is still down and we are a 
second day without dispatches. We regret the 
frequent interruptions on the Eastern Line. . . ." 

Another article in the Telegraph reported: "We are 
informed . . . that for the last five months scarcely 
have 24 hours passed away without a storm somewhere 
on the plains between this city and Omaha, and terrific 
thunderstorms were daily occurrences along the banks 
of the Platte River. But the destruction of poles and 
the bursting of instruments by the lightning, though 
of frequent occurrence, were nothing like the evils 
endured from the actions of malicious and thoughtless 
emigrants [of unnamed destination] who seemed to 
consider nothing but the facility of finding the camp 

firewood from the telegraph line. To replace these 
poles sometimes a distance of fifty miles had to be 
traversed by the repairers. On one occasion this sea- 
son the line was down for three days, from the rather 
cool attempt of some emigrants to serve themselves 
with the wire for a ferry cable across the Platte River. 

"The Indians, fortunately, have been superstitious 
concerning the wire; but there are apprehensions that 
some pale faces among them are instilling into them 
courage enough to handle it freely. At one time they 
cut the line in little pieces on the South Pass for a 
quarter of a mile. At another time they cut it near 
Willow Springs, and carried off about 150 feet of it 
for bridle bits and ornaments." (J. Cecil Alter, Early 
Utah Journalism, pp. 341-42. ) 

Another massive problem to the telegraph company 
was the buffalo. What was more convenient to these 
beasts than the poles for scratching posts? 

Such was the backdrop for Great Salt Lake City, at 
this time a pioneering frontier town with about 10,000 
population. (A Utah Territory legislative act, Janu- 
ary 29, 1868, approved changing the name Great 
Salt Lake City to Salt Lake City.) Yet this city was 
different from any other place on earth. It was the 
headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints, and for four years, 1863-67, the Church 
had been building a tabernacle that would be almost 
large enough to seat all the residents— Mormon and 
non-Mormon— of the city. Although it was not finished, 
construction would permit holding the October 1867 
general conference there. 

According to Church records of Sunday, October 6, 
"the weather was fine in G. S. L. City." Several 
pioneer diaries were checked in an effort to amplify 
"fine." One said that October 5 and 6 were "fine," 
but October 7 was "rainy." The Deseret News often 
recorded weather, but there was no News that day. 
Official U. S. weather records in the area began 
March 19, 1874. 

The Daily Telegraph, in reporting the morning's 
activities of general conference, said: "Altogether the 


Improvement Era 

Superstructure held together by leather thongs. 

'\ .V s v 

Tabernacle was full, and literally verified what had 
been so often said— no building could be constructed 
large enough to hold the Saints.' " 

Earlier the paper's columns had reported: "On Sun- 
day morning, long before the hour named for the 
opening of the gates on the south and west side of 
the Temple Block, the people began to assemble, and 
by nine o'clock there was such a dense crowd around 
these entrances, that there was no passage along the 
side walks. The streets were also filled with carriages, 
wagons and horses, indicating that there had been an 
early and large in-gathering that morning from the 
country, in addition to the vast numbers that had 
reached the city on the days preceding. . . . 

"Prior to the services, President [Brigham] Young 
spoke to different persons in various parts of the 
building, endeavoring to ascertain how the speaker 
could be heard. The results did not then seem to be 
the most satisfactory. . . ." 

Actually, the acoustics of the building did not im- 
prove until the gallery was built before the building 
was dedicated at the October 1875 conference. 

Speaking before the beginning of the meeting, 
President Young "expressed to the workmen the thanks 
of all the Apostles, and all the brethren and sisters, 
for the steady perseverance and faithfulness that they 
had manifested in completing thus far the building." 

The appointed hour of ten had come, and the Presi- 
dent called the audience to order. A perfect stillness 
ensued as the opening hymn was sung by the 150-voice 
Tabernacle Choir led by Robert Sands: 

"Praise, praise, O, Praise the great I AM! 
Sing glory, glory, glory to the Lamb! 
Let every heart a tribute bring, 
And join to praise our God and King." 

Five stanzas followed, the last one being a repeat 
of the first.. The hymn was especially written for the 
occasion by Eliza R. Snow. 

Not more than 700 of the 2,638 organ pipes were 

April 1967 

General conference in 1867 ran full page. 

I JQLJCJ JLJ Jjj u> U Jllju I ±4 JCi V* ,y 


NO. 40. 


The Yhirfcy-sevtiulli Secit- Annual 
Oob&renao of t»o Cbureb of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Stents, C«hv«nfi<! ( 
sccortliug id adjournment at, Inst April 
Conference, <m Sunday morning, Oct, 
9th, at 10 o'clock, ia the New Taber- 
nacle, which WM rtfady fur Conference 
to he held iult, thegrtatexertioDsoiade 
for some time p«t by tboEe hiving 
charga of its ereeium having been thus 
f«r successful. The Taberuacle ia 250 
feat iu leoRth by ISO ia width, and ia 
capable of seating a vast oaBftouraa of 
peop!o; a detailed description of it win 
be mora appropriate when itia fluUbed, 
and dedicated. An hour before the ap- 
pointed, time for Conference comruenc- 
ttxg, the Immense buiSding waa crowded 
In every part, great numbers* being un- 
able to obtain admUatoti. 

There were present during ttto meet- 
ings. Presidents Brigham Young, Ho- 
ber C. Kimball and Daniel H. Wells, 
the First Presidency; Orson Hyde, 
Orson Pratt, sear., 2ofan Taylor, Wil- 
(brd Woodruff, Oeorja A. Smith, Essra 
V. Benson, Cbarlea C- Rich, Loreneo 
3u3'», Erastua Snow, Gaorgs Q. Can- 
non «nd josipjih F.Bmlt*', (f* ha Twelve 
Apostles; John Smith, PUfrforeH; Joseph 
Young, Rear., Levi W* HEsueoefe, Ho- 
rses B. lildrcdge, Jacob Oateu and John 
Van Cott, of the Presidency of the 
SeTeutkp; John Young, Edwin D. 
Woolleyund S*mu*l W. Richards, the 
Presidency of the High Vttotsi** Quo- 
rum; Daniel Spencer, Get>rgs Xi, Wal- 
lace s-,id Joseph \V. Y<.imt£, Kha presi- 
dtucy of this Rbtkt of Zi«n; Edward 
Hunter, Leonard W. ilit-dy anrljtsse 
C- Little the Prr&bttrticy of tha Bishop- 
rlcfe; Jildt-ri Brlgham Yoofig, Junr., 
arid John W, Yon ■?; 'i<id a great num- 
ber of BUfbogS, Pr.*s,ideals of settle- 
ments <md ElUt-rs ffflin various (arte of 
the Territory. 

At ifce rejuirtere table w*re Eiders 
Oeorfifi D. Wull , Durid W. Evans and 
Edward L. Btnao, short-hand writers; 
and Elder T. it, II. titeuboufle. 
■ The singing «n iu charge of the Tnb- 
ernacla choir, led by Elder Hubert 
Sands, wifh the nsw organ, played by 
Joseph J. Day an; a carabiuatKm of the 

Bpriug-srUle, Siiauish Fork and Fiiysim 
choir*; end a few singers from Srhjbliia 
City, Box Elder Co,,, and SmUlifietd, 
Cache Co,, !«d by Elder Fi&hbyrrce. 
Captain Croxall'u, Captain E*rdley*a, 
the Ogdfn, and the Nephl brfiKa lands 
made inusle as occasion offered, at the 
close tf tbe meetings near to the Tabi-r- 
rsacle, and at vsrkras times and plam * 
through the city during Goo titmice. 
The new Organ, which wkb played with 
tbe staging of the Taberuaelecholr, will 
bctt nisgniflcenl end splendidly foned 
tns!:ii;uent when fuily completed. Of 
He quality of tone and compass pa*, isfae- 
iciry evidence was obtained during Coc- 
fefiuce. Its opening music was given 
tbrougb jiOvt-n hundred mouths; when 
completed the pipes wilt number two 
thousand. Its else will be twenty-three 
feet wide, thirty feet dtcp, and forty 
Juign. . 

Bcfora opening Conference President 
B. Young, Ib bi-half of ell the Apostle*, 
. (tnd a'-I the brethren And skiers belong- 
lax to tlie Church, rtii-nied inostsio- 



Cere thanks to tba who hid 
been engaged on. the Twbemacle, for 
their Rteady perseverftuoe an<l talthful- in working on and eompJi'ting the 
hutldins tn fur. He flleo spoke of the 
labors of Elder BEdurea oa the I»rue 
Or^nn, ft&d of the tlitlk'uUies he hnd in- 
bttred under in hitt work. 

Canferftncs iras called to order, und 
the following hymn, composed by E. 
R. Snow for the tKJU&siatt, wiis tueft 
reed by the clerk, aud Bung by the Tn- 
beruaele qholr. 

P* »!*», peai.sf>. O, pr»Ho Use Qr*st I AW) 
Sing aJory. siwy l<) iha toiiiU " 
Let ev'ry Uosttii, tfiftutubricg, 
ittd^fiia topfiii.i ourG>>-AaM!i tHftft 
O OoH, wba fortB'cl th* fie^v'tn nn-l *>\~~ 
wtioeantts Lh.^^({ , ''<"' , ■"^ toantl^ai ftjrtb— 
Who built fhe sky au'i ma ; l9 in-* sea,. 
TaooB7lo«T Ootfc w:i bow to TUso. 
Tby servants. Lor.!, frw-jaibto U<jre, 

O, tet T»iy bplrit u a tbam rest, 
And av'rybR3i5'«*->jl, tis liiiMbt. 
Wbtlo wa c3QTuoufrjta G j.j «j d^/. 
B* ta our ml Jat, O a oil, w« pfAjr 
And lelTfiyraigiity power bof*U, 
Tbo droas, (o bufu—tlie s^id, to taeii. 
On mftnntain tops, a &6*>ja s(.*u±c 

[i* Hshtut9B*Bladtntnat Ua'U; 

ULo bni'ull) i l^mps, Tb/ Trcth, O 0*Si 
AnJ rljjbieoa^nEM jo forth ftbfOSd, 
Praise, pr-iUa.O, pratM tba Of^^; f AMI 
aina glary, a!arj!otl>s LamW 

A»<JJo!a top..;. . n a ■-■ '■ ■■' 
Prayer was thep oETered by P ;-• it 

B. Younjr; aftej which "doidler* of 

Christ arise" was ^img by ;!ie ti^atbiii.t- 
llon of the Spririyville, ripanisU F*»k 
and l*ava»u cbolrn, led rtspecUvely by 
Etde»F«i!« " - 

Wlihatn J»»e* < 

WilU*tfl Cinyson 

President H. 

thHt the cl*t* oi 
sod kt?ep Hiii eo. 
Saints *■« must hi 
Httd live In rfg 
Iirtrdso as to h»^ 
with us contiun 
these niount;tii!8 
could v 


Lord i 



ited ■ 

oke i 

purposes of tl 

of His .peop 

Kingdom of C 

ingand Willi 

no fear of Its 

iu its pppgreBtj and 

watch and pray lt-sft v 

[irogresslng with it. 

men. who nave been, t 

ii'g on the Neiv Tsl 

Bishop Edward HUa^ 

the Biatiops and their 

Young and thoae «s*o 

and all ferae); and 

power and principle o 

*>-! * could be opened 

they are. we would «e< 

to-day to blew u», an 

noTPBrof God with us 

do »« good. 

p'e contiiu 

Young and 

by the power of Qo : 't. CO 

mountains as any 

*x\-wmptMiftByti Ei ■ 

the Spirit of God, Her* w 

to be a gr^-at peop'i*, and 

not forsaken cor forgotleu 

built tble house to worst 

now our duty is to prepare 

tbe blessiBjsi to be obtalu 

pie by binding one, and I 

purity of hear* and fctocemy ur boui, a 

the Temple of Kirtland reared 1 

the midst of privation and poverty 
was dedicated, I 
Jam ssnd Johr 

Pr*>j. D. H. Walls s\ld it was with 
deep feeling of gratitude to the Lout 
that ho *ross before bo Urge a tMttgre- 
gutluQ of the Bkiu'rs to sponk of the 
thiuRS of the kingdom. Ttmereottou 
of tbtj building in which they were a*- 
afimbted ho looked upon as a pr&afc 
BcliLevement worthy nt the people at 
the SfttAtft. We »ro gathered to iri*se 
Viih«ya a- the mouiitufiia to learu to 
build up the Kingdom of God, and it 
makt's no riiir^n-nco what we are called 
to do — whether to raUe wheat, build 
factories, ntisd U«k, or any of the pro- 
duct.* of the earth, if we only under- 
stand our eu.Uif.iy atld ary faithful. We 
have to rfoJaini the earth and mai:f* the 
place of Hia fVet storioxra hpfore Htm. 
The great work of tbe last days ia to 
gather oi;t the hooest-lri-heartj Vstab- 
tinh the Kingdom <if God upo^ the 
earth, and reclaim the earth from (hu 
thraldom of sin and darkness. The 
Lord bad led forth His people iti might; 
He has led hii servant Brighum in 
migbttiniJ in power; He has planted ns 
in tha midst of these naouotatiis, bless- 
ed the land tor our nukes, and caused it 
to hri(5g forth for the sustenance of Hi* 
people. He has turned awiy the avtl 
deaiens of ourenemieSj and f rest fated 
all their wicJted plans. The Laiier-day 
BAiots are agouti people, but there is 
room for improvement, and it is our 
work and .mission ti> tuiprore and pro- 
$ies% in rlghte^n^neaB. 

Ringing by the Tabernacle Choir, 

Prayer by P«»ldeat D. H. Wells, ' 

2 p.m. 
■" -\g by'the >mbt»attoa ohblr. 
''A .■,-, puti<*n ■ Htrr*ii«th," ted by 
Woi ^nes: pmy«i by Etd«r B. Youog, 
J'.i-ir.; 'ringing by T>dieruacU choir. 

Klder Orson Hyde fflid It *TM the 
largest conyregation he imd ever ad- 
dressed in h:e life and it teemed to be 
the lamest rellgi-iie BtPtmWy he bud 

thought as n child; but when I 
a man I put away I'hildish tbli 

Hinging, "Tha Mountain Bt 
Eider Kisliburtie'a chwir. 

Preaidei:t.H. YwiH^sald that 
Ca'a exphilri the resurrection e 
has rKCeivtd tiie feeyd of i*, 
Wevley epuld not exphvtu tfn 

tu;d build up the Kingdom of 
OtUise h« had tint the priesthood 
milhorlry and power of God 
HtfSatdlfhe were r^ked did b 
stftttd the resttrreoUoffi, he vrmil 
did not; imt he uttderatood t 
concerning it as any man living 
component part o!' th*? ereatui 
forth In ths» rssurrt-ction. Tt 
that form tha organisation of 
dure for ever unless he forfeit* 1 
to tbtm; ami be shall pos3e< 
wh»a he is resurrec'^d, J&su 
First- bora from tbe dead; tl 
fruit* from the earth ,and aa 
raised complete and Joeorrup! 
will avt-ry auii*t be who is rai^e 
resurrecr.iori oftbejoat. WudLf 
the re^t of the world tn many 
for we have beeu o»If#d out ( 
world that we may put away 
evil and cling to righteous a* 
differ from all th# world In y 
and doctrine, fop we bellevo 
practice the gospelj aud out 
hopes, desires, wisb«a and Qbj 
sprtaa the gospel and gather 


tbAt ■ 

! *0 clil 

lur people that \ 
Bf^ate with thi-ai and ■- 
fifeHriRfl. With ns our ..;.... 
should be, tilt? gfcftt ti.pic oTc 
tion, (be great subject oftbougl 
people have gathered here frcra 
rioue itatlooa ->f tbo earth, tin 

r.d Vt 

■d h;is 

tbe Tt til- 
ing it fn 

When (bat hulldin. 
" WO, 1.7 Pets 


and ! 
ccen ot ma 
people, aivl 
God Mi^bt 

and urged tl 

were sick to 
tor*- stone, 
anoint tht'n 



pie hi 

the ex- 

and who manifui-t in their II pi 
iateuce of the ptiuelptes taught in the 
gospel, and whieh the world pogsfitt 
only in theory. He eacoa raged parents 
who have been betefiof tJielr children 
by death't assuring them that if fitithfuj 
they will receive them again, and re- 
o the ?a:rte on«?a who have been 

taken trc 


: th( 



laid down 
rroptlbtej t 
iod In thel 
in Ibem. 



ce fort 



a: J th! 

:e incorrect and only v&l& 
; but liow with more ma- 
s he 6uw thftlr error, and m'ub 
baariiUt ever uttered them: 

■) bf-rs 

nd be 


and apnrt 

ud to oue anotb 
d fully the reroar! the.dii 
Singing by the g. «, and P, 
Prayer by Pros. B. H. Wtiia, 

Mooday, 7th, 1( 
:: ;8icslug by the Tabernacle 
prayer by Wilder John Twylorj 
t>y the S. 8, and l\ ebofrs. 

Elder Orson Pratt referred 
tboughta and ■uggt-stEonn whh 
brought to ids mind by the app 
u building J« 5 t erected, 

;0 b 


it Jo 
'r«ia 1 

his h 

motir.taiq of tboi.-jrJ'i: 

Advertising has changed much since 1867. 



BOOT, SHOE,, Pioaees Ile«u\i\UH's 

Ilariicss nnd Saddle Shop, 

OptKatt* D'shap Bunk l i '3 rLaMJfiOCa, 
East Tkmpll- Stkkkt, Q. 8. L. City. 

Al) flrdcra will be Blled JaUhftillj and prompi- 
ffv unoordliia to contract, an it a* cheup imauy 
In t&e city. 

Notice (o Soot and Sitae takers I 


0$m a misAi 

WHEA5' atTmraAg 1 

<■ ■ PR0VIS10?i, 6RAIS, and 

Family Grocery Store, 


ttJptMwtw Waatttr flro,'*j 

Fi.OUE, COftS M'£A1*„ CK\N, SKO&tS, 

POTAttM'.-*. OSlOJfc^, 

BCrTEK, SEWC-'S, (l'!':':;-!; I3.\C0>*. Sc, 




TT7Elh»nte the pnii(iiw of Clftb Tor ilieir liberal 
f » PutronfiKPbeveiofi.Ti*, HU'J H«t'» a coti^ita- 


At Onr New Stand, 

Wbere we have ogeae* 

OF \. *.'.': 

©3S- <3Jg? STB 3^S ^£^ ® 
Bcngbt Sast this StuamWj 

ny o<!e ort?:f Finn, wfth ^i & i: o a-fcjlge ot^wliat 


Stap!o ri r ; Fancy 



Ak, Jt -SjC U 1? JO J3s 





At the Cbeajsest and lowest fiato, 



■ (atfortihs 

.uctton HM«J 

Three Doors bslow the New York Store, 

, Corner of 

tijnlil and .^econtl South Streets, 


this Store has been na-fitieri, 

Anil Is now op«H*d v:th 

An Entirely New Stock 







SliWt'B &JDSHi«fiM; 


filS'OF FASlilON. 

ShinglesI Shingli 


HA VINO Utiot i>i>. ft':J It: opef.Li 
MKVV ■.UTl'tH. In H.,'1.!,. i 
W»nl, on Sprii:? Crf;-:t. lit^ CwlUiXiW 


. ... ihe Pta««rt]tT, nts't fot 
Gmln (.!:.! Sr>. i .-,ll.l l f^ yr,. NOT ^i'l' 

KU by Simved Shinsk's; btijijj SL^iirn 

Warranted not to War 

All klnd*afPnJd«(S Mteat Osshnot 
Clf-n.t anil sound 

Guaking A^p lo.^s Wauled at tl 




A BE u(«r itr^pareJl l»rseel*a orders. 

Tiihe.(et!vrwl tn iMssHys/tttrljnviS: 



! ^ 

An old photo shows organ console in casing. 

Men work on the temple, completed 26 years after Tabernacle. 


in place, and since the casing had not yet been built, 
the builders had thrown a loose garment around the 
organ. Nevertheless, it was played by Joseph Daynes. 

President Young offered the opening prayer, ex- 
pressing to the "Most High the grateful feelings of the 
Saints for the favors which he had multiplied upon 
them, enabling them to have finished thus far an 
edifice in which they could assemble and worship 
Him, their Creator, in the name of his Son Jesus 
Christ, imploring the aid of the holy Spirit to teach 
them how to pray, and what to ask for, acceptably 
in his sight." He further asked "the blessings of the 
Lord upon the congregation assembled, and those who 
might assemble during Conference; upon the Priest- 
hood, all in authority in his Church and kingdom, that 
they might enjoy the outpouring of his holy Spirit to 
qualify them in the discharge of every duty. . . ." 

The combined choirs of Payson, Springville, and 
Spanish Fork, all in Utah County, sang the hymn 
"Soldiers of Christ Arise." Later in the conference 
these choirs sang separately. Smaller groups of 
singers from northern Utah— Brigham City and Smith- 
field— were heard. 

The first speaker was President Heber C. Kimball, 
followed by President Daniel H. Wells, both coun- 
selors in the First Presidency. President Wells also 
offered the benediction at that morning session. 

Elder Brigham Young, Jr., gave the invocation at 
the afternoon session. Elder Orson Hyde was the 
first speaker, but he was very hoarse and only spoke 
briefly. President Brigham Young was the other 
speaker. President Kimball pronounced the bene- 

Captain Oman's, Captain Eardley's, the Ogden, 
and the Nephi brass bands made music as occasion 
offered, playing near the Tabernacle at the close of 
meetings, and at various times and places through the 
city during this, the 38th semiannual general confer- 
ence of the Church. 

The Deseret News published weekly and semi- 
weekly editions at this time. (The first copy of its 

daily schedule was to come November 21, 1867, within 
six weeks of this conference time.) The eight-page 
paper dated Wednesday, October 9, devoted its first 
three pages to the conference, including the list of 
names that had been read from the pulpit of those 
called to "go south" on colonization missions and a 
shorter list of elders called to "go on preaching 

The editor explained that "the 'News,' through the 
want of paper, was compelled to suspend the regular 
issue of its Semis of Sept. 28 and Oct. 1, and its Weekly 
of Oct. 2 . . . without being able to inform its 
readers. ... All the [supply of] paper, instead of 
two-thirds as first reported, that . . . had been pur- 
chased for the 'News/ was burned by Indians in the 
forepart of August, at the time they ran a freight train 
off from the track and destroyed its contents in the 
neighborhood of Plum Creek." (This was not in Utah, 
as the territory was yet to have railroads.) 

The paper noted that a two-day cricket match was 
played on Washington Square (site of the present 
city and county building) with the guest Cache 
County club, and that the Great Salt Lake City club 
was the winner by 35 runs. 

Although very small type was used, the list of 
"Estray" animals from the city and other communities 
filled almost half a page. The full page of adver- 
tising shared by various merchants proclaimed every- 
thing from "Shingles! Shingles!" "Pure Castor Oil," 
"Wholesale! Wholesale!" "Cotton Yarn, Manufactured 
at President Brigham Young's Cotton Factory," 
"Dried Peaches, Dried Apples, Beans, &c, &c," to 
"Notice! We beg to notify all Parties, NOT TO 
DELIVER ANY MORE HAY! for our account at 
Camp Douglas." 

There was a reprint, "Brigham Young and Mor- 
monism," and a news story, "President B. Young's 
Trip North." The last page contained more adver- 
tisements, some news notes from outside the city, 
marriages, and deaths. Some of the latter carried 
the editor's note: "Mil [lennial] Star and Skandinaviens 


Improvement Era 

Brick buttresses 

Interlacing beams of Tabernacle. 

Stj erne [LDS publications in Europe], please copy/' 

Also on that page were some official reports of the 
city; one, a "Sexton's Report" for the month ending 
September 30, 1867, listed 80 deaths: 48 males and 32 
females, broken down further as 7 adults and 73 
children. Some causes included teething, 27; inflamma- 
tion bowels and flux, and whooping cough, each with 
12; diphtheria and inflammation lungs, each with 3; 
heart disease, drowned, and killed accidentally, all 
with 1. Misty eyes must have sought that part of the 
paper; with statistics that high, hardly a home would 
go long untouched by personal tragedy. 

Recording events of the previous day, the day of 
the first general conference sessions in the Salt Lake 
Tabernacle, the front-page stories of the New-York 
Tribune for Monday, October 7, 1867, mirrored war 
and the fear of war. Garibaldi's movement was in- 
flaming Italy and Rome, not yet unified as one 
nation. Great Britain was involved with the Abys- 
sinian Question. Other headlines included: "Parlia- 
ment [in Prussia] will declare for German unity" and 
"French intrigues at Munich." 

It was reported that a storm "has prevailed for the 
last 24 hours, and still continues," causing two 
steamers to be overdue at Havana, Cuba. In perhaps 
a quieter part of the world, a river steamer from Fort 
Benton, Montana, "arrived at Omaha on Friday night, 
with $3,000,000 in treasure and 200 passengers." 

Civil War General Philip Sheridan was expected to 
receive a hero's welcome at Boston that Monday 
morning. General William T. Sherman had arrived 
in Washington that Sunday on telegraphed orders from 
President Andrew Johnson. There was speculation 
that Sherman would replace General U. S. Grant in 
the War Office, a fact actually accomplished in 1869. 
Of his current command, "General Sherman has stated 
since his arrival here [Washington, D.C.] that there 
are good grounds for the belief that good results 
will come from the labors of the Indian Commission 
and that hostilities will cease ere long." But on the 
same page of this newspaper was a St. Louis date- 

line: "The Indians have stolen some horses from the 
North- Western Fur Company, near Fort Buford, and 
killed three men." 

The Tribune liked hyphens in New- York and New- 
Orleans. New-Orleans reported: "The deaths from 
yellow fever for the 24 hours ending at 6 o'clock this 
morning [October 5] were 59." The fever was at 
Mobile as well, and a man from Memphis en route 
to Nova Scotia had died of yellow fever at Springfield, 
Massachusetts. A St. Louis story stated reports circu- 
lated about cholera in that city "are greatly exag- 
gerated in their character. Only two cases were 
reported up to noon" October 4, but the average had 
been about 25 a day. 

The Boston funeral services for Elias Howe, Jr., 
inventor of the sewing machine, were briefly chron- 
icled. Front-page New-York Tribune financial news 
came from London, Frankfurt, Antwerp, and Liver- 
pool, as well as Washington. 

The problems that face man and his society differ 
little in the span of the century. Today's publications 
have type faces that are more easily read, and they 
present a wealth of illustrations. To the unacquainted, 
today's diseases may masquerade with new names. 
But the annual report for 1965, issued by the Utah 
State Department of Health, indicates that there were 
no deaths in Utah from either diphtheria or whooping 
cough in the five-year period 1961-65. That old 
Sexton's Report would indicate that in September 
1867 more than 94 percent of his new graves were for 
children. For 1965, in all of Utah, those under 15 
years accounted for 10 percent of the deaths. 

Through vigilance, both yellow fever and cholera 
have long ceased to be death hazards in the United 
States. But as communicable disease has been beaten 
back, accidents and heart diseases have risen sharply 
in the mortality charts. 

The problems in the adjacent centuries remain 
similar. Man has not yet learned to enjoy those peo- 
ple in other lands as his "neighbors." Mortality was 
given to man so that each in his own allotted time 
may see what he can accomplish. In any generation 
there has hardly been a person who at times has not 
taken as his own the anguished words of Thomas 
Paine, "These are the times that try men's souls." 

The gospel of Jesus Christ, as presented from the 
pulpit of the Salt Lake Tabernacle for a century, and 
in countless, conversations and sermons since the 
Church was restored and organized in 1830, is indeed 
the way of life unto eternal salvation. Good men who 
make this gospel a part of their lives and purposes 
become better. Better men, through the guidance of the 
Spirit, become great. O 

April 1967 


World-famous Tabernacle 
organ as it is today. 

Joseph Harris Ridges, 
builder of the 
Tabernacle organ. 

Some 626 keys, buttons, 

pedals confront Tabernacle organists. 

Pedal and 
swell cathedral 
knobs of console. 

It has been 

estimated that more 

persons worldwide 

could recognize 

a picture of the 


O rgan 

than any other 
musical instrument. 

By Jay M. Todd 

Editorial Associate 

• Modesty keeps the Church from openly calling the 
Tabernacle organ what many often do— the greatest 
organ in the world. Others, while not referring to it 
in these words, admit it is one of the most admired, 
and often called the "sweetest toned," of all the great 

Whatever their terms, it is clear that millions of 
persons esteem the rare and soul-thrilling strains of 
the unusual instrument that has rallied Latter-day 
Saints for a century. 

They praise it not solely for size, although the 
organ's 10.814 pipes make it one of the world's largest. 
(There are only a handful of organs with more pipes, 
ranging up to Atlantic City's gigantic 33,000-pipe 
instrument. ) 

They praise it for the organ's widely recognized 

potential to stir the hearts and minds of men. 

Statisticians estimate that more persons worldwide 
could recognize a picture of the Tabernacle organ 
than any other musical instrument. 

Yet it is not recognition alone that makes it one of 
the world's most talked-of organs. It is the comments 
of the great organists who come to finger its keys, 
savor its sound, marvel at its warmth of tone, and thrill 
at its power and brilliance of note clarity, and who 
leave envious of those who are blessed to play it 

Their professional admiration is bolstered by mil- 
lions of radio and TV listeners and viewers, some of 
whom have so closely associated themselves with 
the Tabernacle organ that they have identified with it 
in census reports and other surveys. 

Still more millions pour through Temple Square, 
seat themselves on century-old wooden benches— 
which, unbeknown to the audiences, add more timbre 
and mellowness to the organ's sound— and listen 
raptly to the daily recitals or attend the Tabernacle 
Choir's Sunday broadcast. 

Their reason for coming is known by any who have 
heard the hooded trumpets' and clarions' call in the 
stirring passages of "Come, Come, Ye Saints," or those 
who have melted within at the strains of the voix 
humaine, sometimes called the "cry stop," used in 
"O My Father." Millions more have heard the 
whistling sounds of the flauto mirabilis solo stop 
(often called the "whistling stop") used in "As the 
Dew from Heaven Distilling," and have felt an inner 
peace and momentary union with the Infinite. 

Little do listeners realize that these sounds are 
only a few of the countless billions the organ is ca- 
pable of creating. In an article titled "Landmarks of 
the World: The Mormon Tabernacle," Holiday maga- 
zine estimated that "to reckon the number of notes 
and chords, with all their shadings, that the organ can 
produce, multiply two quadrillion by three quadrillion, 
then multiply the result by itself. You wind up with 
a figure 36 followed by sixty-six zeros." Although all 


Improvement Era 

The 32-foot 
pedal bombardes. 

Ellas H. Jones, organ maintenance head, 

Wayne Devereaux, 

organ technician, examine pipes. 

of the potential billions of sounds and combinations 
(36 thousand vigintillion ) would not be musically 
usable, the usable potential is still limitless. 

According to organ technicians, "If a boy started to 
play the Tabernacle organ when he was four years 
old and played eight hours a day, changing combina- 
tions every fifteen minutes until he was 94 years old, 
he still wouldn't have exhausted all of the meaningful 

This is one of the simple but important reasons why 
Tabernacle organists must find time daily to search 
out new, stimulating, and soul-filling music. A person 
could listen to the organ all his life and still in very 
fact hear new and thrilling sounds just discovered by 
the organist. There are so many moods and variations 
of tastes that an organist can duplicate nearly all of 
the known musical sounds. 

As to what the world's leading organists say about 
the organ— not counting those equally famous and 
gifted men who play it daily— this is simply a matter 
of record. 

"The instrument is glorious. It is absolutely 
superb."— Marcel Dupre, the French master who has 
been called the greatest teacher and performer of the 

"This organ is more than an orchestra. It is the 
greatest instrument to be found."— Virgil Fox, well- 
known recording organist. 

"There is nothing like it."— E. Power Biggs, concert 
organist, who also said of the Tabernacle, "A person 
can even cough in here and -it sounds good." 

"There is nothing I can't play on this."— Lois Miller, 
organist of Atlantic City's 33,000-pipe organ, who 
said she could only spare 15 minutes between air 
flights but stayed to play the organ two hours. 

One of the world's leading organists, Wilma Jensen, 
played the organ for ten minutes, then turned to her 
host and said, "Is it possible I might apply for position 
of organist here?" 

But what is it, one asks, that makes the Tabernacle 
organ different from all other organs? 

A H 

it A 


April 1967 



Wayne E. Carroll tunes 
a reed trompette pipe. 

"There are five factors of organ greatness," says 
organ technician Wayne Devereaux, himself a gifted 
organist. "One, the quality of the organ's components 
and their construction; two, the voicing of the pipes 
themselves, or the manner of cutting the lip, nicking 
the teeth, sizing and placing the beard on the indi- 
vidual pipe; three, the variety and complexity of the 
stops to provide the innumerable sound combinations; 
four, the resonance and acoustical quality of the build- 
ing in which the organ is housed; and five, a competent 
organist to play the instrument." 

But the organ has not always been as it is now. It 
has changed immensely— numerous times— since its 
able builder, Joseph Harris Ridges, set himself to the 
task of creating the embryo of this honored instru- 
ment. To completely explore his life, so full of provi- 
dential help and interesting experiences, would require 
a book. 

Born April 27, 1827, on the outskirts of South- 
hampton, England, Joseph Ridges early determined 
to know all about the organs made in a firm directly 
across the street from his family's home. His intense 
interest in the design, working, and making of the 
intricate parts and the mathematics of establishing 
correct musical range soon made him a near nuisance 
at the factory. 

In fact, in company with an older friend who worked 
at the plant, Joseph often stayed late, even through- 
out the night, playing and examining various organs. 
Many times he walked miles to a distant church to 
talk to an organist about his instrument. More than 
once, while examining an organ, he found himself 
locked in a church. 

But at 23 Joseph Ridges' interest in organs— for a 
reason that he later was unable to account— was super- 
ceded by a "bad attack of gold fever," and he set sail 
for Sydney, Australia, to find his fortune. Rather than 
finding a fortune, he found a spiritual storehouse in 
the friendship of a young Mormon convert, Luke 
Syphus. Together Ridges and Syphus went 400 miles 
into the "bush," where Ridges decided to join the 
Church after his wife, Adelaide, was raised from her 
sickbed by a blessing of the priesthood at the hands of 
Brother Syphus. 

Joseph and his wife returned to Sydney. During the 
day he worked building cabinets and at night he built 
one of the early organs of Australia, which attracted 

Some 638 keys, pedals, stops, and 
buttons await the organist's touch. 

much attention upon completion. One of the visitors 
was Elder Augustus Farnham, presiding elder for the 
Church in Australia, who felt impressed to ask Ridges 
if he would give his instrument to the Church. Ridges 
consented, and in 1855 he and the organ were shipped 
across the Pacific to San Pedro, California, and by 
mule train to Salt Lake City. (The episode recently 
was the subject of a TV show in America, "An Organ 
for Brother Brigham.") The organ was set up in the 
rear of the first tabernacle, an adobe building near 
the site of the present structure. 

When the present tabernacle was nearing comple- 
tion, it was decided an organ would be put in it, 
and Brigham Young counseled with the only organ 
builder available— Joseph Ridges. After spending 
weeks designing and redesigning a proposed organ, 
Ridges presented his plans to President Young, who 
immediately approved them. 

For the next 12 years Joseph Ridges set himself to 
his task of creating one of the world's great organs. 
Of those 12 long years, Graham McNamee, an eastern 
radio announcer of the 1930's, said, "This was one 
of the greatest feats performed by American pioneers. 
When you consider there was only one man on the 
job who knew anything about building organs, and 
add to that the fact that Mormons also had to make 
most of their tools before they could even start, 
the job assumes remarkable proportions." 

But as the work progressed, Joseph Ridges dis- 
covered that certain materials were needed from the 
East. Only about $900 could be spared from Church 
funds, but the amount was sufficient. Taking leave of 
his labors for several months, he journeyed by stage 
line to Omaha and then took a train to Boston, where 
he purchased spring wire, sheet brass, soft leather for 
the valves, ivory for the keys, and other materials. 

As a master of the intricacies behind the casework, 
Joseph Ridges perhaps felt the need for ideas and 
assistance concerning the organ's exterior. Few of 
us realize the planning that must go into making the 
best possible acoustical and architectural conditions 


Improvement Era 

Ears, upper and lower 

lips, and languet of 

montre pipes. 

Sixteen-foot diapason 

pedal pipes held in place by shoe strings. 

Boston Music Hall organ may have influenced Tabernacle organ design. 

ft j 

for an organ. But Joseph Ridges did, and apparently 
he recognized in the Boston Music Hall organ that for 
which he had been searching. 

While in Boston, because of his interest in organs 
and desire to improve his technical knowledge, Joseph 
Ridges probably inquired about and examined organs. 
The most famous organ of the time, then only a little 
more than two years old, was the Boston Music Hall 
organ. For still another decade this instrument, 
inaugurated November 2, 1863, was to be known in 
America as "the great organ." 

Comparing photographs of the Tabernacle organ 
with the Boston Music Hall instrument, it appears 
that the Boston organ left a deep imprint upon him. 
Whether Joseph Ridges examined the Boston Music 
Hall organ in person or examined it through pictures 
or designs, it appears that he adapted some of the 
exterior design and a few of the interior intricacies 
of the Boston organ to fit the needs of the instrument 
he was to build in the Tabernacle. 

He couldn't have been influenced by a better in- 
strument. For three years a representative of the city 
of Boston had studied and examined every organ of 
outstanding reputation in Europe and had conferred 
with Dr. E. J. Hopkins of London and with Franz 
Liszt. After the music hall organ was built by 
the firm of Walcker of Ludwigsberg, Germany, and 
after the casework design by Hammat Billings 
was adapted by Herter Brothers of New York, Boston 
still insisted that an international commission of organ- 
ists, musicians, and technicians examine the instru- 
ment and suggest improvements before it was shipped 
to Boston as America's first concert organ. 

Ridges returned to Salt Lake in the spring of 1866 
and set himself to the almost incredibly difficult one- 
man task of designing and guiding the building of an 
organ that soon would overshadow even "the great 
organ" in tonal beauty and frame. Without benefit of 
an international commission of organists or counsel 
from technicians, Brother Ridges began anew his work. 

Following his return to Salt Lake City, newspaper 

April 1967 

Beautiful wood casework was carved by Ralph Ramsey. 

reporters quoted him as saying the Tabernacle organ 
would be built "on a large scale on the most improved 
principles . . . that modern art in organ building has 
produced." At that time he commented that there 
would be a 32-foot pitched pipe and that the general 
dimensions of the organ and casing would be about 
23 feet wide by 30 feet deep by 40 feet high. He 
said that the design would be "a very handsome one, 
and that the front will be formed with flutings, 
panels and pillars in the Corinthian style, tastefully 
carved and crowned with pyramidical tops," and will 
present a "massive and imposing appearance." 

His efforts now turned to directing the six to eight 
men usually in his employ and to overseeing the 
labors of others gathering pine from nearby mountains 
and from as far away as St. George, Utah (about 300 
miles to the south). The southern Utah wood was for 
the big 38-foot montre (32-foot pitch) front-placed, 
gold-leaf pipes, which are not single pieces of wood, 
as often thought, but laminated pine strips wedged 
tightly together to form circular pipes. Hundreds of 
buffalo and beef hides were used for the bellows 
and glue. 

How did he know how long to make the pipes for 
the proper note? The mechanics of music is precise. 
For example, if one had an eight-foot pipe and cut it 
in half, the sound would be an octave higher. If the 
pipe were made twice as long, it would be an octave 
lower. The length of the pipes was strictly a mathe- 
matical—although intricate— consideration. 

By the time the Tabernacle was opened in 1867 the 
organ was only one-third complete, but unbeknown to 
Tabernacle designers and builders, they had already 
been guided in preparing a house whose acoustics were 
a fitting home for Ridges' instrument. 

Unlike most other organs, the Tabernacle organ 
was placed inside an acoustical shell. The building's 
nearly all-wood nature returns the organ tones like a 
great cello. Even the floating balcony, so-called 
because it hangs out several feet from the walls, 
serves a function like teeth in the mouth to give 
resonance and articulation to the sound. Before the 
placement of the balcony, Saints had complained about 
the inability to hear in the Tabernacle. 

Equally amazing in hindsight is the insistence of 
Brigham Young that the wall plaster be thick, thus 
creating a good acoustical or sound-reflecting plaster. 
Plasterers at first couldn't get a thick plaster to stay 
up, but one day the foreman said, "Boys, go out and 
clip your horses." They mixed the hair with plaster 
and were able to coat the building with over one-half- 
inch-thick plaster strongly knit together with horsehair. 

By 1877 the original Ridges 2,638-pipe organ was 

completed. It was not as wide as the present organ, 
as photos on pages 10 and 12 show. The exquisitely 
carved wood casework was done by Ralph Ramsey. By 
this time Ridges had changed his four hand-pumped 
bellows to a reciprocating piston pump driven by a 
large water wheel placed in City Creek, part of which 
had been diverted to run directly underneath the 
organ from the north. 

Many interesting stories surround the hand-pumped 
bellows, which was so arduous to work that it would 
tire the four men in half an hour. On one occasion 
the organist, Joseph Daynes, announced that he would 
play an encore, Tannhauser, but upon trying to play 
he found the organ without air. After a few moments 
of signaling, he went to the rear of the organ and 
found the four "pumpers" comfortably seated. When 
questioned, the leader said, "Whenever you give a 
recital you always get the credit, and we wish to say 
that without our help there can be no recital." Brother 
Daynes returned and had his four assistants named one 
by one. 

By 1885 parts of the organ were rebuilt and en- 
larged; 16 years later a complete pneumatic action was 
installed, the console detached from between the 
tallest pipes and placed near its present location, and 
numerous pipes added. By 1916 the organ was 


Improvement Era 

electrified and the two 15V2-foot wings were added, 
giving the organ its present visual size. More pipes 
were added in 1926 and 1940, and then in 1949 the 
organ was rebuilt by G. Donald Harrison, presi- 
dent of Aeolian-Skinner. Today's 10,814 pipes in 
189 sets or ranks still include more than 200 of Ridges' 
original woods, including the large wooden gold-leaf 
pipes that have the power to physically vibrate the 
entire Tabernacle. 

The 32-foot pitched pipes sound at 16.35 cycles 
a second. The smallest pipes, less than three-eighths 
inch long, sound at 16,744.03 cycles a second— higher 
than some people can hear ( overtones go about 19,000 
cycles a second). 

Millions have seen the organists, but few have seen 
the men who keep the soaring, notes from turn- 
ing sour. 

The Tabernacle organ tuners— facetiously called 
"chiselers" because their primary tool is a simple 
chisel— daily tune, clean, and give general upkeep to 
the organ. 

"It's not generally known," said tuner Wayne 
Carroll, "but dust or a temperature change can alter 
the sounds of the pipes," Cold weather makes the 
chimes and reeds go sharp; hot weather makes them 
go flat. Flutes are not as changeable, and some of the 

The organ can create countless 
billions of musical sounds. 

sensitive reeds need to be tuned every week. Tuning 
in the Tabernacle is best done at temperatures be- 
tween 74 and 77 degrees. 

At the normal pace of tuning pipes, it takes months 
to tune all 10,814 pipes. But even if the tuning were 
urgent, it would take more than 30 days to completely 
tune the organ with a full staff of tuners, assum- 
ing that the tuning could go on without interruption, 
something the constant flow of tourists and daily re- 
citals makes impossible. 

Care must be given to the several hundreds of 
miles of electrical wiring in the organ, the antiphonal 
organ in the rear of the building, which provides the 
famous echoes, and the ten-inch pinhole airtight pipe 
that underlies the length of the Tabernacle floor to 
feed the 700-pipe antiphonal organ. Care must also 
be given the three-phase-current 30-horsepower motor 
that drives the big five-foot-high by three-foot-wide 
rotary air fan that provides air for the Tabernacle 
organ and its smaller antiphonal counterpart. 

Technicians can be seen daily checking the console 
—that marvel of design genius. Not only did it take 
gifted technicians to design the console, but it takes 
gifted organists to play it. Sitting down at the Tab- 
ernacle organ console one finds himself in a daze as 
to the alternatives before him: 626 keys, pedals, stops, 
and buttons; five rows of manuals, or 305 keys; 89 
stops on the right-hand side, 97 on the left-hand side; 
32 pedals; 76 pre-set combination stops; and 27 pre- 
set combination pedal pistons. 

"Playing the Tabernacle organ is just as complex 
as piloting an airplane or even handling a space- 
ship, as the astronauts have done," said Roy Swenson, 
organ technician. "Besides using all ten fingers in 
amazingly intricate and fast action, both feet must 
move with equally intricate dexterity." 

It is a fact that few people in the world are both 
gifted and sufficiently trained to play the Tabernacle 
organ effectively. It is also a matter of record that 
from the early 1860's the Lord has provided the Taber- 
nacle organ with some of the world's most talented 

Their names— like some of the hymns they have 
come to be so closely identified with— are names never 
to be forgotten by the Church: Joseph J. Daynes, John 
J. McClellan, Edward P. Kimball, Tracy Y. Cannon, 
Alexander Schreiner, and Frank W. Asper, each at 

April 1967 


one time or another recognized for his musical 

Even before Joseph Ridges had completed his organ, 
Brigham Young had found his organist. One night 
in 1862 President Young attended a party in honor of 
a newly arrived company of Saints. Leading the 
singing was an Englishman, John Daynes, who was 
accompanied on a melodeon by his 11-year-old son 
Joseph. Listening to the young boy play, Brigham 
said, "There is our organist for the great Tabernacle 
organ." When Ridges' Australian organ was installed, 
young Joseph Daynes was made the regular organist. 
Later, when the Tabernacle organ was first played in 
1867, Joseph Daynes was its first appointed organist— 
at 16 years of age. 

In addition to playing the organ, Daynes also tuned 
it and kept it in repair until he retired in 1900. His 
numerous compositions were widely used in his day. 
Many are still used today, including the most recog- 
nizable of all Tabernacle organ sounds, music from 
"As the Dew from Heaven Distilling," closing theme 
of the Tabernacle Choir broadcasts. Only a month 
before his retirement Brother Daynes inaugurated the 
famous daily organ recitals, which have the enviable 
record of having been attended by more people than 
any other recital series in the history of music. 

The man, however, who made the recitals famous 
and was called by some "greatest organist in the 
world" was Daynes' successor, the great John J. 
McClellan, affectionately called "the mighty Mac." 
Born in Payson, John Jasper McClellan displayed un- 
usual abilities early and was choir organist in Payson 
at 11 years of age. 

By the time he was appointed Tabernacle organist 
17 years later, his musical accomplishments read like 
a list in Who's Who. As a student at Ann Arbor he 
founded the University of Michigan Symphony Orches- 
tra, and had written for some Catholic friends a mass 
for orchestra and choir. He studied in Europe under 
the greatest teachers available and returned home to 
be professor of music at Provo's Brigham Young 
Academy and later at the University of Utah. 

His ability to transcribe music for the organ and the 
color he lavished on his music brought John Philip 
Sousa to say, "McClellan is an ornament to his pro- 
fession." He died at the height of his career in 1925. 

A year earlier, Alexander Schreiner and Frank W. 
Asper had been named Tabernacle organists. These 

are the men who have mastered the impromptu modu- 
lations, transpositions, and improvisations required in 
Tabernacle broadcasts to fit even half a second of 
air time. 

Brother Asper, now organist emeritus, beloved and 
admired by all who know him, has amassed a record 
of playing well over 10,000 recitals. His name is "one 
of those associated with organ music in the grand 
manner, one of the great organists," and he has often 
been acclaimed for his "gift of technique and sympathy 
of understanding." Called by some as the "poet- 
organist" because of his ability to please all musical 
tastes, Brother Asper continues today his "Sunday 
Evening on Temple Square" broadcasts, which he 

Universally acclaimed one of the finest masters of 
the instrument is the present chief organist, Alexander 
Schreiner. His wizardry and genius have consistently 
kept his name among the top organists of the world. 

Respected music critics have said, "As a master of 
footwork he stands supreme." "His Bach is sheer 
poetry." "His technique is brilliant, but his interpre- 
tive genius is even greater." "As an accompanist he 
has no peer." 

His radio recital, "Alexander Schreiner at the Tab- 
ernacle Organ," can be heard Sunday evenings in 
western America. 

Serving with Brother Schreiner as Tabernacle organ- 
ists are Roy M. Darley and Robert M. Cundick. This 
April Brother Darley completes 20 years of service 
at the Tabernacle organ. He was organ recitalist for 
several years at the Washington [D.C.] Ward and 
Bureau of Information and served as recitalist at the 
Hyde Park Chapel, London, England. The newest 
organist, Robert M. Cundick, holds a doctor's degree 
in music and served also as organ recitalist at the 
Hyde Park Chapel. Their talents assure the Taber- 
nacle organ of musicians of the finest caliber. 

Such is the story— the inspiring and intensely human 
story— of the Tabernacle Organ and of the men who 
built it, tune it, and play it. No other organ in the 
world is quite like it. And no other people in the world 
have such a right to it, for who else has a message over 
which even the "mountains shout for joy?" The Prince 
of Peace has said, "Peace I leave with you, my peace 1 
give unto you." True peace has been given the 
world by the soul-stirring sounds of the Tabernacle 
organ. Our Father truly has been with us. O 


Improvement Era 


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April 67 Era 

Early interior 
of the Tabernacle, 
with fountain 
in foreground. 

From the day it 
opened to the present time, 

the Tabernacle 
has been the 

I oral Point 



By Eleanor Knowles 

Editorial Associate 

What is the Salt Lake Tabernacle? Is it a con- 
cert or lecture hall? A rehearsal hall? A place for 
religious services? A civic center? The Tabernacle, 
described by some writers as one of the architectural 
wonders of the world, is all these and more. Few 
buildings erected by men have been as much used 
and have played as great a part in the lives of a 
community or a church as has this building. From 
the very day it opened to the present time, the Taber- 
nacle has been the focal point for events of local, 
national, and even international interest. 

While the building was not dedicated until 1875, 
it attracted large gatherings of the Saints beginning 
the day its doors opened in October 1867. Used at 
first just for religious services, including regular sac- 
rament meetings and conferences, it soon became also 
a civic center. The first recorded mention of a 
non-religious use of the building was in 1870 when, 
according to Andrew Jenson's Church Chronology, 
"discussion commenced in the large Tabernacle . . . 
between Apostle Orson Pratt and Dr. John P. New- 
man, chaplain of the U.S. Senate, on the question, 
'Does the Bible Sanction Polygamy?' It was continued 
over three days." 

By the time the building was dedicated in 1875, it 
was basically completed, including a gallery around 
three sides that almost doubled the seating capacity 
and added considerably to the acoustics. And so, on 
October 9, 1875, a balmy autumn day with 80° F. 
temperatures, the Saints crowded into the building- 
some 10,000 of them— and many other thousands 
jammed the doorways and milled around Temple 
Square as Elder John Taylor, President of the Council 
of the Twelve, offered the dedicatory prayer. 

Elder Taylor's prayer was a masterpiece in compo- 
sition, a comprehensive recital of the conditions and 
aspirations of the Saints at that time. In the prayer 
were dedicated not only the usual components of a 
great building, but also "the mortar which binds the 
foundation stones together," the "nails, bolts, and 
straps of iron, of copper, and the brass, the zinc, the 

Improvement Era 

Baptismal font, located in southwest 
basement area of Tabernacle. 

Wooden steps curve upward 
between ceiling dome, roof. 

tin, and the solder wherewith the metal is soldered 
together," the plaster, even "all the lath and the nails 
and the sand and the lime," the locks and hinges on 
the doors and windows, "and all the ornamentation of 
this building, both within and without." The Lord 
was also asked to bless the parts of the organ, includ- 
ing the woods, metals, bone, ivory, leather, keys, stops, 
levers, valves, bellows, and "all other appurtenances 
and appliances, together with the gilding, the painting, 
the varnish, and the polish thereof." 

But even more important, Elder Taylor asked the 
Lord to bless the Tabernacle "to be a holy and sacred 
place wherein thy servants may stand forth to declare 
thy words and minister unto thy people in the name of 
thy Son forever." 

The building has been remodeled and changed 
through the years as science and technology have 
opened new doors and avenues to improvement. The 
choir loft has been rebuilt half a dozen times; new 
electrical and heating systems have been installed; 
broadcast facilities have been added; the balcony 
stairs have been remodeled to allow for outside rather 
than inside access; and many other improvements 
have been made. 

One of the unique features of the building, a fea- 
ture that gives it such marvelous acoustical properties 
and also allows for uninterrupted sightlines from any 
seat is the immense dome. (One writer for a national 
magazine said the building "reminds you of a slow, 
primordial, many-legged turtle slumbering among the 
curved walks and tidy flower beds and trees that 
accent the Square's well-barbered grass.") 

Between the ceiling and the roof of the building 
is a space of nine feet. A hike up the ladders and 
across the ceiling reveals the original latticed wooden 
arches, lashed together by rawhide and fleshed to- 
gether by plaster mixed with animal hair to give 
strength and stability. Within this nine-foot space 
are giant cables for electrical lines and pipes for the 
sprinkler system. The roof itself was originally 
covered by 350,000 shingles, which were later re- 

placed by a metal roof constructed of metal 
"shingles." The familiar aluminum roof of today was 
put in place in 1947. 

Beneath the building is a huge basement area with 
a labyrinth of rooms for storage, offices, lockers, 
workshops, steam pipes, and electronic equipment, as 
well as tunnels burrowing beneath Temple Square to 
connect the Tabernacle with the new Visitors' Center, 
the Salt Lake Temple, and even the huge power plant 
a block west of the square. 

Radio Station KSL has had broadcast facilities in 
the Tabernacle for four decades. The control room 
on the south side was completed in 1938, and with 
the advent of television, vast amounts of electronic 
equipment are now jammed into one cramped area 
of the basement. Work will begin this summer on 
excavation of additional room beneath the building 
to properly house this equipment. The station has 
three full-time men working in the Tabernacle, and 
during conference sessions this staff is augmented 
by many additional technicians, cameramen, and 

From its planning-stage days to the present, the 
Tabernacle has had a great economic effect on -Salt 
Lake City. Thousands of workers helped build it 
and have been employed during the various remodel- 
ing programs. Today six men are employed full-time 
to keep the building in top condition at all times, and 
three other men, organ technicians, are employed to 
work on the organ. During the summer, when 
tourists descend upon the building in great numbers, 
additional men must be employed. And, as one of the 
top tourist attractions in the city and the scene of 
numerous concerts and programs, the building has 
had tremendous impact on the economy of the entire 

The building is in use daily, with groups of tour- 
ists pouring in and out of its doors every thirty min- 
utes during the winter months and every twenty 
minutes in the summer. Each day except Sunday 
many thousands attend the noontime organ recitals. 
The Tabernacle Choir can be heard there in re- 
hearsal Thursday evenings and in its weekly network 
broadcast Sunday mornings. 

The Tabernacle has been the home of the Utah 
Symphony for about two decades, and during the 
1966-67 season sixteen concerts were scheduled there— 
approximately one concert every ten days— in addition 
to regular rehearsals. 

Adding to the crowds who visit the building each 
year are those who attend general conference sessions 
each April and October as well as the conferences of 
the Church auxiliaries. 

April 1967 


Funeral services have been held there for many 
noble men and women, including President Brigham 
Young, whose vision spearheaded construction of the 
building and who lived to see it become an important 
center for the Church and the community. 

Great religious figures have appeared in the Taber- 
nacle, ranging from General William Booth of the 
Salvation Army to the Rev. John M. Reiner, a noted 
Catholic priest, and Dr. Norman Vincent Peale, 
modern-day minister. In May 1928, it was the conven- 
tion setting for the Episcopal Synod Province of the 

Many of the world's greatest opera stars and musi- 
cians of the past century have included Salt Lake City 
and the Tabernacle on their concert itineraries, 
including Nellie Melba, Lili Pons, Rise 
Stevens, Lauritz Melchior, Paderewski, Fritz 
Kreisler, Vladimir Horowitz, Mischa Elman, 
Sergei Rachmaninoff, Jascha Heifetz, Van Cliburn. 
One of the greatest of the Metropolitan Opera stars 
almost appeared there —but was foiled by a ruling on 

use of the building. In 1927 a 

presentation of The Barber of 

Seville with Feodor 

Improvement Era 

Chaliapin in the starring role had to be cancelled and 
tickets refunded because of a rule at that time that 
performances in costume were forbidden in the 

In addition to the Utah Symphony, the Tabernacle 
has played host to most of the world's great orchestras, 
including the New York Philharmonic, the Phila- 
delphia Orchestra, the Cleveland Symphony, and the 
Minneapolis Symphony, 

In its early days, the Tabernacle was the scene of 
many lectures that today are more commonly held on 
local college campuses. Madame Mountford, a native 
of Jerusalem, attracted audiences for three successive 
nights in 1897 with her lectures on village life in Pales- 
tine, the bedouins of the desert, and the life of Jacob. 
The same year Senator Frank J. Church lectured on 
"The Manners and Customs of the Japanese and 
Chinese." But while most lectures and concert per- 
formers welcomed the opportunity to appear before 
the vast audiences that filled the auditorium, Madame 
Sarah Bernhardt, the famous French actress, could not 
be prevailed upon to enter any buildings owned by 
the Church during her Salt Lake City visit in 1906. 

Most of the United States Presidents and presi- 
dential candidates have spoken from the Tabernacle's 
rostrum in this century. Presidents Theodore Roose- 
velt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Warren 
G. Harding, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S Truman, 
John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson spoke 
there, as did presidential candidates James G. Blaine, 
Dwight D. Eisenhower, Adlai Stevenson, Richard M. 
Nixon, and Barry Goldwater. 

One of the busiest areas of the Tabernacle is the 
baptismal font, which was dedicated February 3, 
1890, and is located in the southwest corner of the 
basement. Ten stakes perform their baptisms here, 
with two being assigned for each weekday, Monday 
through Friday. The air-conditioned font area has 
seating for 110 people. At each baptismal session, 
ten to twelve people are baptized, and during the past 
two years more than 5,000 baptisms have been per- 
formed there. 

The building's acoustics are world famous, but 
because of deaf spots, particularly in the choir seats, 
they are anything but a dream for a choir singer— 
those sitting in the alto section can scarcely hear the 
basses. For the audience, however, the magnificent 
sounds of choirs singing in the Tabernacle are thrilling 
and spine tingling. 

Many great choirs have sung there, in addition to 
the Tabernacle Choir. Church historical records tell 
of a performance June 17, 1887, of the cantata 
"Belchazzar" by Zion's Choral Union. The Great 

Eisteddfod, a Welsh competitive singing festival, was 
held there in 1895. The Salt Lake Oratorio Society 
presents Handel's Messiah each Christmas season and 
also appears in concert with the Utah Symphony. 

During MIA June Conference choirs of more than 
1,000 youth delight audiences, and general conference 
and auxiliary conference sessions have featured sing- 
ing mothers choruses, Primary children choruses, 
groups from Brigham Young University, Ricks College, 
and the institutes of religion, and even a Samoan 
chorus from Oahu Stake in Hawaii. 

The days of the Tabernacle have not been without 
excitement. During a Fourth of July celebration in 
1887, fireworks ignited the roof, but, according to 
Church historical records, "the flames were promptly 
put out by the fire brigade before doing much dam- 
age." (Today the building is well protected by a 
sensitive sprinkler system, installed in the ceiling in 
recent years.) 

In 1933 water pipes froze and burst one bitterly 
cold night, causing extensive damage to some of the 
walls and carpets. Six inches of water accumulated 
in the basement under the organ, but the organ itself 
was not touched. 

On a quiet January Sunday in 1938, four men were 
found spraying gasoline on the building. During the 
ensuing scuffle, one of them was severely burned. It 
turned out that the leader of the group had not been 
granted a request to speak in the Tabernacle on "per- 
sonal talks with God." 

On the lighter side, the auditorium used to be 
cooled by a water fountain in the middle of the main 
floor. One hot day a young boy from Hawaii, who was 
attending conference with his parents, dived impul- 
sively into the fountain, much to the amusement (and 
probably the envy) of the congregation. 

While the Tabernacle has indeed been a great civic 
and cultural center for the Saints and the community, 
however, it is first and foremost a house of worship. 
From its pulpit have spoken prophets of God, whose 
sermons have expounded the doctrines of the Church, 
called the world to repentance, and defined the way 
to life eternal. 

The late President Stephen L Richards of the First 
Presidency summed up this function of the Taber- 
nacle eloquently in an April conference address in 
1952, when he told about "the noble servants of our 
Heavenly Father who have stood here and given 
inspired counsel to the people, and borne testimony 
with such power and conviction and spirit as to 
electrify every soul who heard. . . ." This is truly the 
greatest function and destiny of the Salt Lake 
Tabernacle. O 

April 1967 



By Mabel Jones Gabbott 

Editorial Associate 

"It is 

the spirit 

of the ^ \ 



that makes it great. 


— Eugene Ormandy 

• It is Thursday night on Temple Square. Inside the 
Tabernacle, choir members are greeting each other, 
checking their music, taking their places. Choir 
Conductor Richard P. Condie's directions are specific: 
'*. . . even though you sing pianissimo, make it vital." 
It is rehearsal time. A prayer is offered, and Isaac 
Stewart, choir president, makes announcements about 
coming tours. As he concludes, he says, "Eugene 
Ormandy said to me, 'There are many choirs in the 
nation. What makes the Salt Lake Mormon Taber- 
nacle Choir such a tremendous choir?' And I answered, 
'It could be the singers; it could be the conductor; it 
could be the organ or the organists; or it could be the 
building. It is all this and more; it is the spirit of the 
Mormon Tabernacle Choir that makes it great.' ' 

On August 27, 1847, just one month and three days 
after the arrival of the pioneers in Salt Lake Valley, a 
special conference was held in the old bowery. "Presi- 
dent Brigham presided," says the Journal History, 
". . . and the choir sang two hymns." 

They had come with song! From England and 
Wales, from Nauvoo and Winter Quarters, the Mor- 
mon pioneers had come walking across dusty prairies, 
through swollen rivers, and over mountain passes, 
singing, "All is well." Now in the old bowery the 
choir expressed in song a people's gratitude for this 
"place" in the valley. 

In 1849 John Parry was chosen to direct the central 
choir for meetings in the bowery and later in the old 
tabernacle. In 1854 Elder Parry was called on a mis- 
sion to Great Britain, and Stephen Goddard became 
the second conductor of the Tabernacle Choir, fol- 
lowed by James Smithies, Charles J. Thomas, and 
Robert Sands. 

Robert Sands, a talented musician who was born 
in Ireland, was called to lead the choir in 1865. The 

Improvement Era 

"I have learned discipline in singing 
and conduct," one member said. 

plans for the new Tabernacle were underway, and 
he called on architect Truman Angell to suggest a 
few changes in the west end to better accommodate 
the choir and its conductor. On October 6, 1867, at 
the semiannual conference of the Church in the new 
Tabernacle, Robert Sands led the Tabernacle Choir. 
From many volunteers, 150 men and women were 
chosen to sing for this great occasion. 

Today, representing the two and one-half million 
members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, 375 choir members, blessed with the gift of 
music, send out to the world a unique and urgent 
message in song; and the greatness of the choir is 
measured by the greatness of each individual choir 

Each member has been auditioned for voice pitch 
and tone quality and for the ability to blend with 
others in a choral group. Voluntarily and gladly they 
give of their time and talents. Members must 
arrange family affairs or business responsibilities in 
order to be available for all choir demands. Before 
the days of artificial lighting, choir practices were 
held in the afternoons and members had to get per- 
mission from their employers to attend. Now, on a 
Sunday morning, while the choir is warming up for 
the CBS broadcast, a mother at the telephone behind 
the choir seats may be heard to say, "Are you ready 
for Sunday School, son? Then hurry along." 

The choir members come from all walks of life. 
Among them are doctors and stenographers, business 
executives and youthful students, farmers and 
librarians. Some loyal members have given as many 
as twenty to forty years' service. Others give brief 
service. One young lady from New Jersey arranged 
to join the choir as a visiting singer during her 
three months summer vacation. From Cleveland, 
Ohio, a young woman who had only six months to 
live expressed one request— that she might sing with 
the Mormon Tabernacle Choir in rehearsal. Arrange- 
ments were made, and with choked emotions and a 
grateful heart, she sang with the choir. 

Like their pioneer ancestors, the present choir mem- 
bers represent many lands and many peoples. Having 
this heritage of a knowledge and appreciation of 
music from other lands gives strength to the choir. 
When the choir toured Europe in 1955, in each coun- 
try visited, choir members whose forebears came from 
that nation were acknowledged and asked to stand. 
The members of the audience identified themselves 
and their land more personally with the choir, and 
in each land the choir received great ovation from the 

Years earlier this difference of nationalities pro- 
vided an amusing development. Brigham Young 
asked the Tabernacle Choir to sing at the Salt Lake 
Theatre to bring a note of lightness to a heavily 
dramatic season. The choir arranged for a quartet, 
recently arrived from Wales, to sing with them in the 
wings as an echo. As the choir sang, "To the echo 
in the hollow hills," the echo replied, "To the hecho in 
the 'ollow 'ills." 

When asked, "What have you learned as a member 
of the Tabernacle Choir?" one member of many years' 
experience answered, "I have learned discipline— self- 
discipline:" Discipline in training and discipline in 
conduct— choir members understand that their char- 
acter must be above reproach, their conduct exemplary 
always. In his late years, Brother Joseph A. Cornwall, 

April 1967 



Members give of their time and talents gladly, voluntarily. 

father of choir conductor J. Spencer Cornwall, said 
to the choir, "Better than all your singing is your 
beautiful, upright, righteous life." 

The members of the Tabernacle Choir represent 
many facets of our complicated lives and many areas 
of our worldwide Church; but when the conductor 
lifts his baton, they become one voice, the voice of 
the Tabernacle Choir. 

Each conductor of the Tabernacle Choir has made 
unusual and distinctive contributions to the choir's 
effectiveness. Like the pioneers themselves, the con- 
ductors came to Zion with song. George Careless, 
who succeeded Robert Sands in 1869, came to Amer- 
ica on the boat Hudson, from his home in London, 
England. While unloading, the captain of the boat 
asked Elder Careless for one of his songs. "I am 
sorry," said Elder Careless, "but my music is all 
packed up." When the captain insisted that he must 
have one, Elder Careless sat on a barrel of bacon, 
took a rough piece of paper out of his pocket, and 
wrote a tune. Calling it "The Hudson," in honor of 
the ship, he gave it to the captain. We sing it today 
as one of our beloved hymns, "The Morning Breaks." 

When Elder Careless arrived in Salt Lake City, 
Brigham Young said to him, "I have a mission for 
you. I want you to take the Tabernacle Choir and 
lay a foundation for good music." Professor Careless 
was a master in music, and under his gentle, quiet 
leadership, the choir was well trained and well 

One of the greatest services to the choir and to the 
Church was the careful and thorough way in which 
Ebenezer Beesley, conductor from 1880 to 1889, col- 
lected and compiled music for the choir and for gen- 
eral use in the Church. 

As the Tabernacle Choir reflected the master 
musicianship, the training and discipline of Professors 
Careless and Beesley, so the members of the choir 
absorbed and responded to the great innate love of 
music of Evan Stephens. Converted to the gospel 
in Wales, Elder Stephens described his awakening to 

the call of music: "It was like suddenly finding one- 
self deeply in love. The world became a new creation, 
and rhythm began to manifest itself in everything." 

Evan Stephens was named conductor in 1890, and 
for 26 years the choir members and the Church felt 
his vitality and inexhaustible energy. The choir was 
increased to a membership of 300, and great recogni- 
tion was gained through concerts and contests. 

In Professor Anthony C. Lund, choir conductor 
from 1916 to 1935, were combined a thorough musical 
training and unusual ability as a teacher. Perhaps in 
this quality as teacher lay his greatest value to the 
members of the choir individually and as an organiza- 
tion. During his term of service, the music of the 
choir, through affiliation with radio broadcasting, 
reached farther than ever before. 

In 1935 J. Spencer Cornwall was chosen as con- 
ductor of the Tabernacle Choir. Along with fine 
musicianship, Elder Cornwall possessed a deep 
spirituality and a keen sense of humor that bound the 
choir to him in loyalty and love. After the choir had 
made a particularly slow beginning at one rehearsal, 
Elder Cornwall said, with a smiling apology to the 
choir members, "That was my fault; I started with- 
out you." 

As the Choir gained worldwide recognition, a two- 
way responsibility became evident: what the members 
brought to the choir, in beauty of voice and character, 
dependability and devotion, and what the choir 
brought to them, in experience, training, and travel. 
Because the members come as volunteers, offering 
their time and talents, they are more willing to give of 
themselves to make of the group a successful whole. 

The performance of the choir is always the first 
concern of the conductor. Periodically we read, in 
the history of the choir, suggestions "in the kindest 
manner possible" that "out of tune" singers, mono- 
tones, or "members who are not up to the standard 
they should be" should withdraw from the choir. 
Frequently a reorganization would be effected, but the 
number of holdovers always outnumbered the new 


Improvement Era 

Choir conductor Richard P. Condie. 

Program is also recorded for delayed broadcasts. 

members, thus keeping a continuity of personnel, of 
repertoire, and of choir essence. 

Richard P. Condie, conductor since 1957, says: 
"The choir is a unique organization that is different 
from most musical groups. The members have a com- 
mon interest and purpose; this is their loyalty to the 
Church and their great desire to bring our message 
with music and the spoken word to people all over 
the world. It has been my purpose in working with 
the choir to have them perform with artistry, with 
verve, and with enthusiasm, in order to deliver a mes- 
sage and to lead them to fulfillment of their con- 
siderable and unique potentialities." 

A great choir and a great conductor need great 

"The most pretentious series of vocal programs ever undertaken 
on the air," said network official. 

April 1967 


Choir members come from all walks of life, represent many lands, peoples. 

music. Added to the artistry with which the Tabernacle 
Choir presents the music of the masters is its distinc- 
tive interpretation of Mormon music. William Clay- 
ton's "Come, Come Ye Saints," which sustained the 
people across the plains, was sung to every group of 
Saints arriving in the valley and is very dear to mem- 
bers of the Church today. It is a hymn that is fre- 
quently requested by listeners all over the world. Eliza 
R. Snow's "O My Father" is also a favorite. 

The choir has given to the world a century of sing- 
ing—classical favorites, familiar songs, and beloved 
hymns. In 1875 George Careless directed the choir 
in its first performance of Handel's Messiah, featur- 
ing 200 performers and an orchestra. In 1958 the 
choirs recording of Messiah with the Philadelphia 
Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, won a 
gold record. 

The songs of the choir are as personal missionaries, 
taking the message of the Church to all peoples, open- 
ing the door to many seekers of truth, building in all 
lands a favorable image of the choir, of America, and 
of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
After the European tour of 1955, the significance of 
the music of the choir was expressed when a gentle- 
man in Wiesbaden, Germany, remarked that the best 
definition of Americanism he had ever heard was in 
the song "Come, Come Ye Saints," which says, "We'll 
find the place which God for us prepared, far away 
in the west, where none shall come to hurt or make 
afraid. . . ." Who can measure how much the choir 
tour had meant in public relations for America as well 
as for the Church? 

In 1867, when plans for the Tabernacle organ were 
underway, President Brigham Young said, "We can't 
preach the gospel unless we have good music. I am 
waiting patiently for the organ to be finished; then 
we can sing the gospel into the hearts of the people." 

The year 1927 promised dramatic fulfillment of 
these words as the choir experimented with the 
medium of radio. The first regular network choir and 
organ program was broadcast on July 15, 1929. It was 

three o'clock on a Monday afternoon; many of the 
choir members had had to be released from their work 
to be in their places at the Tabernacle. Professor 
Anthony C. Lund, choir conductor, had been hesitant, 
fearful that the airwaves would not carry the balanced 
tones of the choir. An announcer in Newark, New 
Jersey, had announced the program as "the most pre- 
tentious series of vocal programs ever undertaken on 
the air." Today the weekly Tabernacle Choir broad- 
cast is the oldest continuous coast-to-coast program in 
American radio. 

In June 1930 Richard L. Evans became announcer 
for the choir broadcast. Two years later, when KSL 
and the Salt Lake Mormon Tabernacle Choir affiliated 
with CBS, Richard L. Evans, as announcer, writer, and 
producer, evolved the format of the present weekly 
program, "Music and the Spoken Word." Each Sunday 
Elder Evans comes to his radio audience with a fresh 
and often startling discussion of a vital topic pertinent 
to life and living. Through the many years of continu- 
ously presented sermonettes, there is a notable lack of 
repetition. One listener says of these exquisite brief 
sermons: "I'm positive that no one else alive can put 
so much thought and inspiration into as few words as 
you do." "The Spoken Word" is published each month 
in The Improvement Era. From these choice thoughts 
Brother Evans has had twelve books published, his 
latest being Faith, Peace and Purpose, which was 
made available to his readers in October 1966. 

This radio affiliation opened new opportunities for 
the choir to give greater service to the Church. There 
followed such honors as the Peabody award-winning 
television program, Let Freedom Ring; "Wide, Wide 
World"; the first intercontinental telecast, via Telstar 
satellite, from Mount Rushmore National Memorial; 
and two Cinerama productions, as well as other films. 
The Tabernacle Choir was selected by the U. S. In- 
formation Service to be featured in a documentary 
film, With Music Ring, which won several inter- 
national awards. 

The choir's numerous albums have won a permanent 


Improvement Era 

Some loyal members, such as Sister Jessie Evans Smith, 
have given as many as 40 years' service. 

"Even though you sing pianissimo, make it vital." 

place in many record libraries. One recording, 
"Battle Hymn of the Republic," became a best-selling 
hit, winning for the choir the coveted gold record and 
"Grammy" award. Among other widely acclaimed 
albums are The Beloved Choruses, This Land Is Your 
Land, Bless This House, The Lord's Prayer, Songs of 
the North and South, and five albums of Christmas 
music, including The Joy of Christmas, recorded in 
1963 with the New York Philharmonic under the baton 
of Leonard Bernstein. 

Since 1893, when the choir was invited to sing at 
the Columbian Exposition at Chicago, the concert tri- 
umphs of the Tabernacle Choir have covered most of 
the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and Europe. 
Traveling first by horse and buggy, then in special 
railroad cars, the choir now travels by air, in chartered 
jet planes. On March 24 of this year the choir flew 
to Phoenix, Arizona, where a ten-stake concert was 
held in the new Veteran's Memorial Coliseum, which 
has a seating capacity of 14,000. Later this summer 
the choir will go to Montreal, Canada, to participate 
in Expo 67, marking the 100th anniversary of the 
Dominion of Canada. 

The greatest joy that comes to individual members 
of the choir is participating in general conferences of 
the Church in the great Tabernacle, knowing that 
miraculously through the air over worldwide WNYW 
their heartfelt message in song will reach a missionary 
brother in Argentina, a father and mother in Western 
Germany, or a sweetheart in South America. 

There are many choirs. What makes the Tabernacle 
Choir a great choir? Perhaps it is the setting— the 
world-renowned Tabernacle— and the famous organ on 
Temple Square; perhaps it is the conductors; perhaps 
it is the faithfulness, the devoted lives of the choir 
members; perhaps it is the new and stimulating mes- 
sage the hymns of Mormondom bring to the world. 
But more than all that is the spirit of the choir, dis- 
seminating the Lord's message of truth and beauty, 

compassion and love to all his people everywhere. 


Richard L. Evans evolved format for "Music and the Spoken Word." 

April 1967 


Temple Square 

Tabernacle ChoirJ organ 


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Richard Warner, Russell Harris 

Schedule for Temple Square 

Tours — Summer schedule (June-September): Every 20-30 
minutes 6 a.m. to 9 p.m. Winter schedule: Every half hour, 
8 a.m. to 6 p.m. All tours, which begin near the south gate, 
are about an hour and fifteen minutes in length and include 
the film Man's Search for Happiness in the new Visitors' 
Center. The film is shown every half hour. 
Tabernacle Organ recitals — Summer schedule: Noon and 
7:30 p.m. six days a week and 4 p.m. Sunday. Winter sched- 
ule: At noon six days a week and 4 p.m. Sunday. 
Visitors' Center — Summer: 7:00 a.m. -9:30 p.m. Winter: 
8:30 a.m. -7:30 p.m. daily. 

Tourists Want to Learn at Temple Square* 


Millions of travelers from around 
the world have visited Temple 
Square and been impressed by 
what they have seen and heard. 
The following interview is with 
four guides, who have a combined 
total of 55 years of guide experi- 
ence: Russell Harris, teachers 
quorum adviser, an attorney; Mar- 
vin Curtis, second counselor in the 
Monument Park Stake presidency, 
a businessman; Joseph R. Smith, 
first counselor in the Bountiful 13th 
Ward bishopric, mortgage and 
loan officer; Richard Warner, sec- 
ond counselor in the University 
Stake presidency, manager of an 
automobile agency. 

Q — What most interests tourists 
about Temple Square? 

Warner— The temple and the Tab- 
ernacle are the two buildings they 
have seen in pictures and that hold 
their fascination. Here on one city 
block we have two of the most 
widely recognizable buildings in 
the world. Our early architecture 
alone has been a great missionary 
aid for the gospel. In fact, the late 
great architect Frank Lloyd Wright 
said that the Tabernacle was a 
miracle of modern architecture. 
Smith— The new Visitors' Center is 
a lasting memory for many visitors, 
because in it they see our replica of 
the Christus statue, view the paint- 
ings and murals of Christ's life, and 

see the film Mans Search for Hap- 

Harris— I'm always surprised at the 
number of people interested in the 
Tabernacle organ. Even people 
with musical background con- 
stantly ask if it is the biggest organ 
in the world and if it is the best. 
Smith— It's amazing how many 
tourists listen either regularly or oc- 
casionally to the Tabernacle Choir 
and organ. Many who proudly 
identify themselves with their own 
faith listen regularly to the choir 
broadcast and feel that Elder Rich- 
ard L. Evans is their "pastor of the 

Curtis— I have a tour that ends at 
noon, at which time tour members 
must decide whether to see the 
film or attend the organ recital. 
The recital always draws the larger 

Q — Do you find that many tourists 
have had previous contact with 
the Church or members of the 

Warner— More and more people 
who visit Temple Square have had 
contact with the Church and its 
members. Recently a woman said, 
"I have a neighbor back in Grand 
Island, Nebraska, who is a Mormon. 
I've hesitated to talk much about 
religion with her, but now I want 
to read about it, and I'm going to 
ask her some questions." 

Smith —Most American tourists 
know that George Romney or Billy 
Casper or some other prominent 
person is a Mormon. They are 
conscious of famous figures and 
aware of what they read about 
Mormons in newspapers and maga- 

Warner— It is surprising how many 
tourists on Temple Square also 
visited the New York World's Fair 
and remember the Mormon Pa- 

Smith— Although the number is not 
large, there is a constant percent- 
age who have heard segments of 
general conferences. On a recent 
tour I found people from Wiscon- 
sin, New York, and the deep South 
who had heard conference broad- 

Q — What percentage of the tour- 
ists have had contact with our 
missionaries, and what are their 
attitudes about them? 

Warner— Somewhere between 25 
and 30 percent know about our 
missionaries being in their area, 
although perhaps only five percent 
have ever talked with them. But 
those who have met our mission- 
aries nearly always comment on 
the high caliber of young men or 
women who represent the Church. 
They usually want to know what 
special training they have had to 
teach them to speak so well. — ► 

April 1967 



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Q — What are the most common re- 
curring questions of tourists? 
Harris —All of the guides have com- 
mented within the past year or 
two about the significant increase 
in the number of people who really 
want to learn about the Church. 
They want to know about our doc- 
trine and our position and beliefs 
on many subjects. I think it re- 
flects the more mature, sophisti- 
cated age in which we live. Many 
tourists are fact or curiosity seek- 
ers, but a growing number are 
people with broad awareness of the 
world who ask thought-provoking 
questions with genuine interest. 
Curtis— I notice a constant number 
of questions on the relationship of 
Jesus Christ and Christianity to the 

Smith —All of the guides are asked 
about temples, plural marriage, and 
the missionary program. Tourists 
want to know how missionaries 
sustain themselves, how long they 
preach, and what they do after 
their missions. 

Curtis —Tourists ask about our be- 
lief in the eternal nature of the 
family. This usually brings up the 
subject of divorce, which many 
tourists have already experienced. 
Smith —Concerning the eternal na- 
ture of the family, recently I met a 
couple who had just been sealed 
in the temple. She said that when 
she was 14 years old her parents 

Improvement Era 

brought her to Temple Square, and 
the only thing she remembered was 
hearing about eternal marriage. 
When missionaries knocked on her 
door, she asked them in to discuss 
it with her. Both she and her hus- 
band soon joined the Church. 
Harris -I find that many visitors 
are deeply fascinated by the orga- 
nizational nature of a church that 
involves so many of its members. 
To help them better understand, I 
often appoint one person in each 
tour as a "bishop." As we go around 
the Square I let him and various 
people he has called to offices know 
of their duties pertaining to the 
welfare program or conducting an, 
interview for a temple recommend. 
A minister or a prominent lay mem- 
ber of a church often will ask after 
the tour how we are able to have 
so many people working so ener- 
getically together over such a long 
period of their lives. 
Curtis— Although questions reveal 
interest, often those people who 
are moved the most do not ask 
questions. Recently a tall fellow 
joined one of my tours and seemed 
to scowl all the way through it. At 
the end he waited until several 
others had talked to me, then fol- 
lowed me to my car. I could then 
see that he was emotionally moved, 
and we talked about the gospel. 

Q — What stops on Temple Square 

does a tour include? 

Harris— Today's tour is different 
than it has been previously because 
we want to get to the Visitors' 
Center early. We start at seagull 
monument, where we discuss the 
pioneers coming into the valley. 
Then we move near the temple and 
discuss eternal covenants. From 
there we go to the Tabernacle, 
where we play a tape-recorded 
number by the Choir. Our final 
stop is at the Visitors' Center, 
where our tour centers on the life 
of Christ and the restoration of the 
gospel through Joseph Smith. We 
end the tour with the film Mans 
Search for Happiness. Many peo- 
ple come away from the film with 
moist eyes. 

Q — What are the tourists' most 
common misconceptions about the 

Harris— They have numerous mis- 
conceptions about the life of Joseph 
Smith, plural marriage, doctrinal 
teachings of the Church, even the 
name of the Church. But our big- 
gest problem is not necessarily mis- 
conceptions about us— it is their 
own misconceptions about them- 
selves. Often tourists will say that 
they believe exactly as we have 
outlined concerning baptism, the 
eternal nature of the family, the 
literality of the resurrection, or the 
nature of the Godhead. Our pres- 

entation sounds so logical and rea- 
sonable that they say to themselves, 
in effect, "That's what I believe, 
too"— even though their church 
usually does not teach it. This 
means, then, that most people do 
not know what their church 

Curtis— Many people wonder why 
we do not use the cross in our 
buildings or as part of our archi- 
tecture. We inform them that we 
focus our attention on the fact that 
Jesus lives and that we'll also live 
after death. 

Q — What are the basic concepts 
that Temple Square guides want 
to communicate to tourists? 
Warner— I want them to know that 
the Church is more than just a 
sect or a religion; it is also a way 
of life. Membership in the Church 
changes our entire outlook. 
Harris— We want tourists to leave 
knowing that we believe in Jesus 
Christ and that he is the center of 
the Church. Beyond that I try to 
teach something about our eternal 
covenants, the Godhead truths, and 
that we are a family-centered 

Curtis -I'm there to tell them that 
the gospel has been restored, that 
the earth needs it, and that they as 
individuals need it. 

Q — In common with most mission- 

April 1967 





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aries, you undoubtedly have many 
choice experiences. Do you have 
any you'd like to share with us? 
Smith -With the current "God is 
dead" concept circling the world, 
it is an inspiration to see the num- 
ber of heads that nod in agreement 
when we talk about prayer in re- 
lation to the seagull monument. 
In every tour there are always many 
who nod or whisper in agreement 
about the fact that God is alive 
and real, not dead. They are glad 
to find someone brave enough to 
say that God is alive. 
Curtis— Recently I met again a 
couple who had been on a tour 
more than a year ago. At that 
time they had not intended to visit 
Salt Lake City, but they were im- 
pressed while traveling to stop and 
see Temple Square. They were 
good Christians and had been send- 
ing tithing to a radio pastor be- 
cause they believed in the principle. 
I remember having a long conver- 
sation with them after the tour and 
saying, "The Lord brought you here 
because you are going to join the 
Church." Within the year they 
were baptized. 

Harris— I have a letter from a 
woman who walked by Temple 
Square one summer evening and 
entered to see the outdoor movie 
shown there. Her family was to 
leave town the next morning but 
altered their schedule and returned 

for seven nights to see the film and 
enter into the discussions follow- 
ing it. They returned home to 
Michigan, found the missionaries, 
and soon joined the Church. 
Warner— Recently a magazine edi- 
tor told me a fascinating story 
about about an acquaintance she 
had met while in Texas training for 
the Peace Corps. This friend had 
met LDS missionaries in South 
America and was convinced they 
were teaching the truth, so she 
decided to join the Church even 
though her family opposed the 
idea. She wrote to her fiance, who 
was in Spain at the time, explaining 
that although she loved him deeply, 
she felt she must join the Church. 
At the same time— almost the same 
day— her fiance in Spain wrote her, 
saying that he hoped his fiancee 
would understand but he had met 
some Latter-day Saints, and he 
wanted to join the Church. The 
young editor who told me this 
story said that since this experi- 
ence, she had strongly desired to 
visit Temple Square and find out 
about the Church for herself. 
Harris— We've touched on some- 
thing quite important. People 
from all over the world come to 
Temple Square— but for reasons 
that sometimes even they don't 
understand. They often feel that 
a spirit that they can't explain is 
directing them. Sometimes they 
take off their hats when they enter 
the grounds. All of the guides say 
that the one thing that impresses 
people about Temple Square is that 
while they are there, they are hear- 
ing the truth, many of them for the 
first time in their lives. 
Smith —In this respect I would like 
to add that we guides appreciate 
members of the Church who attend 
our tours but who do not prod the 
guide by saying, "Tell them this," 
or "Tell them that." We encourage 
Church members to visit Temple 
Square and to enjoy the tour, but 
they shouldn't try to serve as guides 

themselves while on a guided tour. 


Improvement Era 

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(Residents of Utah add M% sales tax) B-467 

Throughout the ages, the Lord 

God has spoken to his 

servants the prophets, 

providing guidance 

for his children 

through them. 

Paintings by Harry Anderson 



To Adam the Lord, 
said: "Be fruitful, 
and multiply, and replenish 
the earth, and subdue it." 

Genesis 1:28 


And God spake unto Noah, 
and to his sons with him, 
saying: "And I, behold, I 
establish my covenant with 
you, and with your seed 
after you." 

Genesis 9:8 


And when Abram was 
ninety years old and nine, the 
Lord appeared to Abram, 
and said unto him:"! am the 
Almighty God; walk before 
me, and be thou perfect. And 
I will make my covenant 
between me and thee, and will 
multiply thee exceedingly." 

Genesis 12:1 ,2 


The Lord spake unto Moses 
face to face, as a man speaketh 
unto his friend: "I am the Lord 
thy God. ..Thou shalt have no 
other gods before me. Thou 
shalt not make any graven 
image, or any likeness of 

Exodus 2:2, 3, 4 and 33:11 


To Peter came the word of the 
Lord, saying: "Go ye therefore, 
and teach all nations, baptizing 
them in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost: Teaching them to 
observe all things whatsoever 
I have commanded you." 

Matthew 28:19,20 

for new Visitors' Center on Temple Square. 


As God revealed his will to 
Kient man, so he has raised 
a prophet in the latter 

fays, saying: "Wherefore, I the 

.ord, called upon my servant 
)seph Smith, and spake unto 

vim from heaven, and gave him 
>mmandments...and I have 
jnt forth the fullness of my 

gospel by the hand of my 

servant Joseph." 

Doctrine & Covenants 1:17,35:17 

m Popular lilies 


From whence came the idea behind the unique shape of the world-renowned Salt Lake Tabernacle? The 
full account seems to have been lost with the passing of the years. However, several plausible stories of 
how Brigham Young illustrated the building he had in mind have persisted. They concern the shell of a 
turtle, an umbrella, the roof of the mouth, an egg, the hull of a ship, and an orchestra stand. The egg and 
umbrella stories seem to be most widely circulated. 

Brigham Young is said to have used the shell of an egg to show the 
shape of the proposed building. When told that it would collapse, he reportedly 
picked up the scooped-out shell and answered with a question: Why doesn't this 
collapse? Several persons testify that they have heard this story from Susa Young 
Gates, the pioneer leader's daughter. 

Another: One day a friend asked "Brother Brigham" where the idea came 
from. "From the best sounding-board in the world, the roof of my mouth," was 
the reply. This story could have developed after the building gained fame for its 
acoustical properties. The teeth could be compared with the piers and the 
roof of the mouth with the arched roof. There is no contemporary evidence 
supporting the story of the "human mouth pattern." 

Look at the Tabernacle. Now, shut one eye and imagine it inverted. Does 
it not seem to be the keelless hull of a giant ship? Many of the pioneers of 
that day were emigrants or had served missions in other lands, making them 
well acquainted with ships. And, with the "turtle" story, the keelless hull theory 
has been traced back to the times of the construction of the Tabernacle. How- 
ever, there is nothing definitely confirmed. 

On a cloudy day, so goes another story, President Young met Henry Grow, 
who was to build the Tabernacle, on the street. Raising his umbrella, the leader 
stated that that was the shape he desired. Another story, this told in Grow family 
circles, is that Brigham Young and Henry Grow visited the old suspension bridge 
across the Jordan River that Brother Grow had designed, and Brother Young 
asked about an adaptation of the lattice principle used there. 

Credited again to the late Mrs. Gates, herself a Church stalwart and 
historian: The old Tabernacle, designed much like the band shells and orchestra 
stands in many parks, brought the reasoning that if such a segment reflected 
sound, why not extend that type of construction to an entire building? 

Stewart L. Grow of Brigham Young University, chronicler of Tabernacle construction, concludes: "It is un- 
fortunate that none of the records of the day comment on the source of the idea. Each . . . sounds pos- 
sible, and each could have had an influence, but probably none of them represents the whole story." (A 
Tabernacle in the Desert, p. 95. ) Illustrated by Jon Anderson 


Improvement Era 

Photo by Eldon Linschoten 

April 1967 


Fred MacMurray organizes a Boy Scout troop in small midwestern town in Fo//ow Me, Boys, winner of Family Movie of Year award. 

Family Movie of theSear 

• Walt Disney's Follow Me, Boys, 
a picture that makes audiences 
laugh and cry at the same time, has 
been selected by The Improvement 
Era, the Deseret News, KSL-TV 
and radio, and Brigham Young Uni- 
versity as the Family Movie of the 

The film's producers, Walt Dis- 
ney Productions, received the giant 
trophy at all-day ceremonies March 
30 at BYU. Representatives from 
the Disney studio as well as one of 
the performers in the movie at- 
tended the second annual Family 
Movie Award Day ceremonies. 

An interesting sidelight of the 
film is that Vera Miles, who has the 
feminine lead opposite Fred Mac- 
Murray, is a member of The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
She and her husband, actor Keith 
Larsen, were married in the Salt 
Lake Temple several years ago. 

In choosing Follow Me, Boys for 
the family movie honor, the judges 
considered the entertainment value 
of the film for all members of the 
family. There was no picture that 
completely dominated the family 
movie field this year, as did The 

Sound of Music, which won the 
first annual award in 1966. Rather, 
several productions appear to be 
equally meritorious. The Disney 
movie, however, has that extra 
something that appeals to children 
as well as adults. 

Its theme— the story of the dedi- 
cation of a man to youth, especially 
Boy Scouts— gives it extra quality 
for family appeal. The story finds 
an echo in many hearts. Men who 
have worked with Scouts for years 
find nostalgic moments that bring 
tears to their eyes as they watch 
the activities of Fred MacMurray. 
Women who have worked shoulder 
to shoulder with their husbands in 
scouting discover a little of them- 
selves in the sacrificing Vera Miles. 

The story concerns a saxaphone 
player (MacMurray) who tires of 
one-night stands and decides to 
settle down in a small town. He 
picks a typical rural center, gets a 
job in the local store, meets a pretty 
girl, and involves himself in the 
town's activities. He proposes a 
Scout program, is chosen to set one 
up, and finds himself inept at many 
Scout projects, but he works well 

with the boys and continues in the 
job for a happy 20 years. 

The idealistic windup, when the 
town's wealthy widow decides to 
donate valuable property to the 
Scouts and is opposed by a banker 
nephew, is schmaltzy but merry. 
The widow's role is developed 
beautifully by oldtimer Lillian 
Gish, whose flair for comedy is a 
marvel. Another oldtimer in the 
film is Charles Ruggles. 

Prior to the ending, young 
Scouts get mixed up hilariously 
with a U. S. Army training group. 
While this particular sequence has 
been thoroughly cricticized as un- 
likely or corny, it delights young 
audiences, which is recommenda- 
tion enough. 

Follow Me, Boys has a rousing 
song with a cadence that sets the 
heart to swinging. 

The picture was one of the final 
productions to which Walt Disney 
was able to give his personal touch 
before his death. It will stand as 
one of the countless film monu- 
ments to his understanding of what 
makes average human beings seek 
clean, heart-warming entertainment. 


Improvement Era 


Marion D. Hanks, Editor • Elaine Cannon, Associate Editor • April 1967 

A good friend who is the president of a 
university supplied an idea that I would like to 
glare. He was in an area with people who 
were not Christian and who were, by their 
religious commitments and persuasions, 
traditionally thought to be quite negativistic — 
or at least not optimistic. As he left a young 
friend at this university in a far-off place, 
my friend heard the younger man say to him, 
"Make it a good day!" 

He turned back and said, "What did you say?" 
The young man replied, "I said, 'Make it a 
good day !' " 

"Make It a 
Good Day!" 

In many of our homes and among many of us 
there is the usual and appropriate expression as 
we depart from each other, "Have a good 
day!" His expression was a little different: 
"Make it a good day !" 
For all of you, may I offer that earnest 
invitation: Make it a good day! Make it a good 
experience. Make it a happy, wholesome, 
memorable, life-long good experience. There 
are ways to do that — you dan, you know, if 
you will. There is no guarantee that all will, 
but you can. 
Samuel Johnson put a finger on the possibility 

by Marion D. Hanks 

Illustrated by Jerry Thompson 




and path in two very significant statements. 
You have to read carefully, but I think you 
will get them. First, the last four lines added 
by Samuel Johnson to a poem by Oliver Goldsmith : 

How small, in all that human hearts endure, 
That part which laws or kings can cause or cure. 
Still to ourselves, in every place consigned, 
Our own felicity we make or find. 

The other thought : 

The fountain of content must spring up in the 
mind, and he who has so little knowledge of 
human nature as to seek happiness by changing 
anything but his own disposition will waste 
his life in fruitless effort and multiply the 
griefs which he purposes to remove. 

There is, Johnson believed (and I believe), in 

the grasp of each of us the power and probability 

of making it a good day, a good family, a 

good society, and a good world. 

How do you go about that? 

Somebody wrote that "no life can be truly 

great [and I think he did not mean famous or 

spectacular] until it is focused, dedicated and 


David Starr Jordan gave us this short and 
significant paragraph : "To choose among the 
different possible courses of action is the 
primary function of the intellect. To choose 
at all implies the choice of the best. In the 
long run only those who choose the best survive. 
The best each one must find out for himself. 
To choose the best is the art of existence — of all 

the fine arts, this is the finest and noblest. By 
the best, we mean that which makes for 
abundance of life for ourselves and for others." 

Now, whether or not it is a good day — 
whether you make it a good day, a good 
experience, a good life — will depend upon what 
you choose to believe in, to serve, and to be. 

Five Things To Accomplish 

First, learn how to use your head. Learn to 
work at learning and love it. Information 
grows irrelevant; the capacity to learn gains in 

Second, develop the capacity to appreciate 
life on a broad basis, with social and cultural 
skills learned and practiced under favorable 

Third, acquire that sense of wholeness that 
accompanies honest self-respect — the self- 
esteem that comes with wise choices acted upon 
or, when they are poor, repented of. 

Fourth, have a genuine concern for others — 
an identification with others. Learn how to love 
and express love wisely and well, and learn to 
"bridle all your passions that ye may be filled 
with love." (Al. 38:12.) 

Fifth, learn to trust God and to serve him, 
to rest in him, to walk humbly before him, and 
to be confident in his presence. 

Do you remember what Paul wrote to the 
Philippians (to paraphrase) : "Brethren, 
I do not claim to have attained or apprehended. 
I am not perfect, and I certainly do not 
understand everything." But he understood 
something. What was it? 

"... but this one thing I do, forgetting those 
things which are behind, and reaching forth 
unto those things which are before, 
"I press toivard the mark for the prize of the 
high calling of God in Christ Jesus." 

(Phil. 3:13-14.) 

He did not know everything, and he had not 
achieved everything, but he had wisdom enough 
to leave the past behind when it was not 
contributing to his strength, and to move 
forward with what he now had. 
Somebody wrote recently : "History is what 
men make it." You can make it a good day — a 
good experience, a good family, a good 
life — if you want to badly enough. O 


A man once said to a woman, 
"If you can't be interesting, 
at least be pleasant." But 
must boys make that choice 
with a Latter-day Saint girl? 
Why not be both? Be 
pleasant and beautiful, too! 
And be the most gracious 
individual on any scene. 

A Touch of You 

Make yourself memorable. 
Develop a trademark . . . some 
understated piece of jewelry 
... a special fragrance . . . 
something singularly yours. 
(When you aren't wearing that 
special touch, people will 

Some don'ts: 

*Don't forget, your light touch 
on his sleeve beats the heavy 
pat on the back, the poke in 
the ribs every time. 
*Don't overdo the atomizer. 
A girl's fragrance should be 
fragrant and gently so. 
*Don't copy the crowd, mingle 
with the multitudes, ape the 
current movie queen. Be the 
best of what you are. 
*Don't underestimate the 
power of prayer. 

Girl's Choice 

Competition is keen both in 
quantity and quality these days. 
For every available, eligible, 
worthy-of-you kind of boy, 
there are three times as many 
girls. A boy has to work hard 
for his money and has a host 
of demands for each dollar. 
Entertaining YOU may not be 
tops on his list of expenditures 
this week. Be full of ideas 
for fun and free ways to spend 
your togetherness — the zoo, 
the campus lecture, the walk 
around the town's best 
"square," visiting a favorite 
older person. 

Some don'ts: 

* Don't fail to attend every 

girl's choice function. 

*Don't be oblivious to his mood. 

*Don't be apologetic. Don't 

sell yourself short. You're a 

daughter of God, a choice 

spirit. Aren't you glad you 

are you? 


Improvement Era 

Boys Choose 

Boys have a way of choosing 
the vibrant girl, the "sparkler." 
You ask them what they like 
about girls and they dreamily 
mumble words like responsive 
. . . caring . . . wholesome . . . 
gentle . . . fun . . . friendly . . . 
aware . . . clean, clean . . . 
conservative clothes . . . 
feminine . . . dependent. 
Interpreted, this may mean 
they want a girl alive to life, 
in tune with the moment, a 
participant and not a spectator. 

Some Don'ts: 
*Don't just sit there. DO 
something. If there is something 
to smile about, DO it. If 
there isn't, DON'T. Caution: 
there is NEVER a time when 
life is dull, happening less, so 
even your quiet moments 
should be part of the picture. 
*Don't underestimate your 
glory as a girl. You're 
SUPPOSED to be lovely, 
laughing, sympathetic, 
and helpful, too. 
*Don't forget that boys are 
people, too. Treat them that 
way. They like it. 
*Don't huddle together in a 
frightened flock. What boy 
wants to brave THAT 
arrangement just to ask one 
girl for a dance? 


Being ladylike is just that . . . acting like a lady. It has a 
lot to do with good posture, small steps, clean hands, and a pure 
heart. It means dainty bites, swallowing before talking, 
patting the mouth with napkin's corner, not interrupting or 
answering a question directed to somebody else. It means 
refinement, restraint, selflessness. 

*Don't dress like it's a costume party all year long. 

*Don't demand your own way through sulks, scoldings, bossiness, 


*Don't beat a boy at his oiun game. If you want to be treated 

like a girl, try making him feel more like a boy. Any boy (old or 

young) is flattered he's being helpful. 

April 1967 






(Written by Anne when she was sixteen, 
not yet acquainted with the Church.) 

My Search 

Illustrated by Jeanne Lindorff 

By Anne Kirby 

At sixteen I am trying to find the significance 
of each human being in the world, how each person 
fits into the master design, and what my place 
will be in the plan. I am discovering people. 
Each person has his unique philosophy of 
life. Those of us who are still searching for a 
philosophy wonder about the existence of God, about 
life and what we are to do with it, about possible 
life after death, and about that mysterious 
force called love. In my search, when I come 
against conflicting ideas, I seek the stability 
and calm of music, nature, and literature. These 
sources of peace and beauty provide a reference 
point from which I may expand my ideas. A 

visit to the ocean strengthens me; no matter how 
my problems turn out, the tide will roll in and 
out, unaffected by the trivial problems of 
humans like me. Other people, secure in the 
philosophy they have adopted long ago, forget these 
times of indecision. At my age we accept or 
reject many challenges and make choices that 
affect us all our lives. Even if I do not 
obtain my high goals, I shall better myself in 
the search. I will encounter many obstacles, but 
I will become stronger by attempting to overcome 
them. I have begun a search for a philosophy 
of life that will carry me as close as possible 
to my ultimate goals of truth and wisdom. 


Improvement Era 


, '• 


'1 '.V !. ' " 


; -'V... 



I V 


* %- 


■ , . 

* J." 

(Written by Anne about 3 years 
later, now a convert) 

I am a child of God. 

1 come from the spirit world, 

And one day I will again be with God 

If I live the way he wants me to. 

These are simple and beautiful ideas; 

1 have not known them long, 

And yet they are now a part of me. 

I welcomed them when I understood 

Those things you taught me, 

Because they were true, and you knew they were, 

And your conviction was unwavering because you knew; 

And I believed you were right. 

What comfort to pray to my Father in heaven, 

To feel his influence in my life 

And know that he answers prayers. 

Because I truly repented of my sins 

When I was baptized, I knew I was as pure 

As I was on the day I was born. 

April 1967 





^7 SlS 

•ft^unC^.^ r^-^y- 

'"^■i. (-..,-.-• 


5f V* \fc ;\ 

\ ft 

Since I have received the gift of the Holy Ghost 

I know the presence of the Comforter, 

And my mind understands and accepts 

Things of the gospel more readily. 

Now I feel like a new person. 

One of my friends said to me, 

"1 would like to look into your Church. 

I would like to have something to believe in." 

I thought these very words 

Only six months ago, yet 1 could not 

Realize what I was missing. 

I had no idea how it would feel 

To love God so much 

That love of him would make tears of happiness come to my eyes. 

I did not know how beautiful the Sabbath could be, 

How rewarding it is to spend the day thinking and learning 

About my Father in heaven and his divine Church! 

The deep happiness and feeling of purity 


Improvement Era 




•' St I 

i £ S 








That come a/ter receiving the sacrament 

Are just as 1 had felt after baptism. 

I was walking in the foQ, 

And now I am in the sun. 

The world is more beautiful 

Because now 1 know where it came from, 

And I think of how wonderful 

The Creator of these things must be. 

1 love people more now, 

Because I know we all have the same 

Father in heaven 

And that he wants his children to obey him, 

That they may join him in his kingdom. 

He wants us to keep his commandments 

And receive the ordinances of his true Church, 

That we may some day be with him 

With our families, And we will progress eternally 

In his divine presence. 

April 1967 


Diary of a Junior Miss 

by Terri Ann Thornock, Twin Falls, Idaho 

January 7 began one of the 
most exciting weeks I've ever 
had in my life. This was when 
I went to Moscow, Idaho, 
to compete for the Idaho Junior 
Miss title. While I was there 
I met 23 of the finest girls 
I have ever known, girls I am 
sure will be my friends forever. 
I feel that if I hadn't won 
the title of Idaho's Junior Miss 
I still would have won something 
valuable because I was able 
to share some of myself with 
these other girls. I learned 
from being in this competition 
that if you have service in 
mind instead of just doing for 
yourself and reaping all the 
benefits, you gain true 

The things I was able to learn 
from being around different 
people and learning of their 
personalities are great. We 
began every morning with 
rehearsals. In the afternoon 
we went to service club 
luncheons, on tours of the 
University of Idaho campus, and 
to radio and television 
interviews. And after dinner 
there were more rehearsals. 

I have often heard the 
statement: "I don't know 
what I would do without the 
gospel." Now I say exactly the 
same thing. 

I am grateful for prayer. It 
is wonderful to be able to 
talk with Heavenly Father, 
knowing he is concerned and 
will help if we will only 
listen to him. 

I am thankful for the Word 
of Wisdom and the standards 
it establishes. They are the 
standards on which I would 
like my life to be based. 
The Church auxiliaries provide 
valuable experiences and 
opportunities for us to grow 
and develop our talents and 
our personalities. 
I am so grateful for the gospel! 
I know that it is true, and 
I prayerfully hope that I may 
be able to become a strong 
members of the Church, that I 
may be able to share the gospel 
with others through my 
example and teaching. I am 
thankful for my parents and 
for the love and the training 
they have given us, and for 
our closeness as a family. 


Improvement Era 

One in Eight Hundred 

by Terence L. Day 

"I Want to Be Free" was the theme of the 
YMCA-sponsored World Youth Conference 
attended by seventeen-year-old Marilyn 
Pratt of the Kennewick (Washington) Ward. 
She was the only Latter-day Saint among 
800 delegates to attend this conference, 
held inStavanger, Norway, last summer. 
Marilyn, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
William Pratt, was one of ten 
representatives from the Pacific 
Northwest District of the YMCA and one of 
220 from the United States. 
Delegates weren't told why they were 
selected-although all had to be outstanding 
in leadership. But Marilyn believes she 
was chosen because, when asked what she could 
contribute to the conference, she said 
she had a strong faith and could testify 
that there is a God who hears and answers 
prayers and that high moral standards are 
essential for today's teenagers. 
Among examples of Marilyn's leadership 
ability are two years as a cheerleader, 
president of her seminary, president of 
Tau Zeta, and student senator at the 
Washington State Youth and Government 

Marilyn met other U.S. delegates in 
New York City for an orientation session 
at which they were told what was expected 
of them. Then the group flew to 
Stavanger, where they attended another 
orientation meeting. Then they began 
their daily routine, arising at 6 a.m. 
for breakfast ; worship at 7 a.m. ; Bible 
class at 9 a.m. ; group discussion at 
11 a.m. ; luncheon at 12:30 p.m. ; organized 
sports throughout the afternoon; and 

evening meetings at which speakers from 
all over the world addressed the delegates. 
Worship began with prayer, followed by 
scripture readings in English, French, 
German, Norwegian, and Spanish. At 
one point all of the delegates recited 
the Lord's Prayer in their native tongues- 
simultaneously ! 

"Somebody over here would be saying it 
in French and somebody over there 
in German, and at first I ' d get so confused 
I couldn't remember how it went," 
Marilyn said. "But by the time the 
conference was over I could tune out all 
the other languages and recite the Lord's 
Prayer in my own tongue." 
Hymns were sung alternately in different 
languages throughout the conference. 
Marilyn explained that the opening song 
would be in one language, the next in 
another, and so on. 

For Bible class and group discussion the 
delegates were divided into groups of 20 
persons, each having its own interpreter. 
But many times the interpreter wasn't 
needed, because all delegates had studied 
English as a second language in school. 
On the first day the delegates discussed 
what it means to belong to a family and 
the responsibilities and commitments 
that family membership entails. "It was 
interesting for me to see the differences 
in family circles around the world," 
Marilyn said. "It seems to me that 
the teenagers of northern Europe are 
closer to their families than the 
delegates from the United States, because 
we have so many outside interests to 

April 1967 


draw us away from our families. 
During most of the conference we talked 
about what our religion meant to us," 
she continued. "We found that people all 
over the world realize it is necessary 
to serve their fellowman to gain real 
happiness." This view was shared by 
Buddhists, Muslims, Hindus, Jews, and 
Christians alike. Marilyn said she 
had never before considered other world 
religions. "I had considered Christianity 
the only religion. " 
But even non-Christians professed a 
belief in a Supreme Being. "We found that 
although we all worshipped a different 
kind of God, we all believed in a God 
and knew it was necessary to worship 
a Supreme Being," Marilyn said. 
The latter-day revealed concept of God 
as a personal being, which Marilyn 
discussed,, was new to those at the 
conference, including Christians. But 
after the discussion period many delegates 
told her that they were interested in her 
view of a personal God, that they had 
never thought of him in those terms. 
Marilyn's seminary training-her mother 
is a seminary teacher-enabled her to 
quote chapter and verse from the scriptures 
to substantiate her concept of God 
and other points, she said. 
Marilyn says, "The most important part 
of the conference for me was the great 
love I gained for these people from 
different countries. I found that I 
am a citizen not only of my community 
and of my country, but also of a world 
community. " O 


The Way of 
a Miracle 

by Janet R. Balmforth 

• Fifteen-year old John slammed his Bible 
shut. "I don't believe in this miracle stuff," 
he said. 

"I don't either," said his friend, David. 

"If we could just see a miracle," sighed 
Ann," it would be easier to believe." 

The class scholar said, "All miracles can 
be explained by natural laws." 

"That's impossible," said another student. 
"Natural laws take too long, and some of 
these biblical miracles happened in an 

Others in the class quickly added, "If the 
Lord wanted to do a miracle, he could do it 
in an instant." 

"He wouldn't need any natural laws." 

"But the Lord always works by natural 

"I don't believe it; then it wouldn't be" a 

"Why not?" 

Such were the comments of a group of 
seminary students one morning as they dis- 
cussed the miracles of the gospel. Brother 
Alan, their teacher, listened with interest to 
their remarks for a few moments, then said, 
"Now just a minute; what makes you think 
natural laws take a long time ?" 

"Well," said John, "everybody knows that. 
Look how long it takes grain to mature — " 

"Yes, and a chicken to hatch — " 

"And a broken leg to mend I" 

"Maybe if we understood the principles 
behind this growing and hatching and mend- 
ing, we could speed up the process," said 
Brother Alan. 

"But how?" asked David. "That'd be neat 
if we could do that." 

Brother Alan came from behind his desk 
and stood in front of the class. 

Improvement Era 

"Let's use an example," he said. "Suppose 
we could bring to this room the most primi- 
tive man found on earth today — say an 
aborigine from the Australian deserts. Do 
you agree that everything this primitive man 
might see here would be mystifying and 
miraculous ?" 


"Now, let's take something we accept as 
ordinary and try to explain it to him." 
Brother Alan looked around the room. "How 
about that electric light up there and this 
switch over here?" He walked over to the 
wall and flipped the switch off and on. The 
light dissolved, then brightened again. 

"Do you consider this a miracle?" asked 
Brother Alan. 


"Would our primitive man?" 


"Could be," said Brother Alan, "but only 
because he didn't understand. You know the 
principles behind it. So with just one flip it's 
on, and another flip and it's off. Now John, 
how would you explain to our primitive man 
the miracle of this switch and that light?" 

John thoughtfully rubbed a hand through 
his red hair. "Well, I'd say that this switch 
here is connected to a circuit, which has 
a breaker and some wires and — " 

"Wait a minute, John," interrupted Brother 
Alan. "Remember, our man has no idea of 
what wires and switches and circuits are. 
He's never seen them or what they do. We 
must start at the very beginning." 

"Would the primitive man know about 
telephone poles?" asked Ann. 

"Or dams or power plants ?" asked another 

"He wouldn't know anything about any of 

them," said David. "He'd have to start way 
back at the beginning with Franklin and his 
key and kite." 

"Brother Alan," said John, "I think I see 

what you're getting at, but it's hard to ex- 
plain. We all accept the fact that we have 
light or darkness in an instant with the flip 
of a switch, and yet the ideas that have made 
this possible took many years of learning. 
But to our primitive man this is a miracle, 
because he doesn't understand what is be- 
hind it." 

"Also," said the class scholar, "don't for- 
get — we've grown up with electricity and 
light, and we never give them a thought 
unless they don't work." 

"Very good," said Brother Alan. "Does 
this mean a miracle loses its wonder as it 
becomes commonplace ?" 

"Certainly," said David. "Even our abo- 
rigine after awhile would accept that light 
up there as ordinary and then — whoops — no 

miracle !" 

Ann raised her hand, "Brother Alan, you 

mean that we are just like primitive man in 

our understanding of the gospel?" 

Brother Alan nodded his head. "Yes, but 
there's more to it than that." 

Thoughtfully John stared up at the light. 
"There's absolutely nothing in our experience 
that we can use to understand Christ's mir- 
acles, just as the primitive man has nothing 
in his experience to explain lights and 

"Good, John," said Brother Alan; "and 
someday, what?" 

"Well, it'll be a long someday, but when we 
have finally grasped the principles by which 
the Lord works," said John, "we'll see how 
they can be as instantaneous as the flip of 
that switch." P 

April 1967 


• In ancient folklore, when knight- 
hood was in flower and a hero met 
a queen, she was swept off her 
feet, into his arms, and carried 
away on a white charger. Today 
the story is slightly different. When 
the hero, Virgil Carter, star quar- 
terback of the Brigham Young 
University football team, met 
Homecoming Queen Judy Green, 
it was she who ran onto the foot- 
ball field and unknowingly swept 
him off his feet. 

Since that happened they have 
been married in the Los Angeles 
Temple, and on the gridiron Virgil 
has won nationwide acclaim stem- 
ming from his athletic and scholar- 
ly pursuits. 

Virgil was born in Richfield, 
Utah, the second son of Harold and 
Evelyn Carter. Since his father 
was in the United States Air Force, 
the family traveled extensively. 
Consequently, by the time Virgil 
was in the ninth grade he had 
attended nine different schools. 

Illustrated by Ron Wilkinson 

He has three brothers— Mike, Hal, 
and Bill— and two sisters, Susan and 
Marilyn. Virgil says that moving 
around forced him to develop his 
personality and become more in- 

"My interest in sports began in 
the third grade," he said. "I was a 
bat boy for the Provo Timps base- 
ball team while in elementary 
school, and many nights my folks 
would have to drag me away from 
the diamond at eleven o'clock at 

Concerning people who insist 
their children participate in activi- 
ties of the parents' choosing, he 
commented, "Whether our chil- 
dren want to be in sports, in a 
marching band, or on a debate 
team, Judy and I will support them. 
Each child is different, and we 
want our children to develop their 
abilities or interests. But I will say 

that a football or basketball will be 
the first present they'll get from 

When Virgil was in the sixth 
grade at Timpanogos Elementary 
School in Provo, Utah, he coached 
and played with a city basketball 
team that took the tournament 
championship, even though all the 
other teams were coached by 

"As a kid," he commented, 
"baseball was my favorite sport, 
and I idolized Mickey Mantle be- 
cause he overcame so many handi- 
caps and then became a super-star." 

Virgil is an exception to the 
saying that sports and brains don't 
mix. He presently has a 3.8 grade 
point average on a 4-point basis. 
"I wasn't always a good student,' 1 




Kir I 

vifs , Y / 

h * 'V A 

sWhen a Hero 

By Millie Foster Cheesman 

ie Foster Cheesman didn't stand a 

nee of ignoring football: she's the 

other of five active sons (ages 21 to 

j^and a daughter. Between writing 

pageants, skits, poems, and playing 

quarterback-end on the family football 

., team, she teaches the spiritual living 

class in Relief Society in Orem (Utah) 

16th Ward. 

he declared. "I did poorly in ju- 
nior high school, but when we 
moved to Sacramento where I at- 
tended Folsom High School, my 


grades improved. I had few 
friends at first, so there was noth- 
ing for me to do after school but 
study. When the first test results 
came along, the kids said, 'He sure 
is a smart fellow.' After that I 
really had to keep my grades up. 

"Football has brought me good 
times, happiness, some recognition, 
and some heartache," he reflected. 
"It has put me in the limelight, 
and I've found that most people 
are very nice. On the other hand, 
Judy and I find that some people 
are afraid to come up and talk 
to either of us. They forget that we 
are also a little shy, just as they are." 

As he spoke of the recognition 
that has been directed toward his 
success on the football field, he 
said, "Teamwork is largely respon- 
sible for the victories. Those who 
don't get the publicity are often 
those who do most of the work. I 
really have great admiration for the 
people who are not in the lime- 

What has given him the greatest 
thrill in the past four years of col- 
lege football? "Being selected as a 
member of the 1966 Ail-American 
academic football team would have 
to rank first," he said, "since I con- 
sider this a personal achievement. 
Then would come what I consider 
a result of team effort— recognition 
as the nation's top quarterback of 
the week by Associated Press and 
United Press International." 

Virgil feels that the Church has 
helped him in many areas. It has 

provided him with a good basic 
philosophy, and through his Church 
activities he has learned to meet 
the public. He also believes that 
keeping the Word of Wisdom 
makes good sense. "Whether a per- 
son is an athlete or not, he should 
have great concern for his body. 
To me, the Word of Wisdom is 
commonsense. It's not a list of 
don'ts, but rather what I want to 
do to protect myself and keep 
physically fit. Judy and I both 
grew up in areas where there were 
few Mormons, and our friends 
often asked why we didn't drink 
or smoke. We were both proud to 
tell others of our convictions and 

After graduation Virgil says he 
would like "to do graduate work 
in business administration and then 
eventually have a business of my 
own that Judy and I can watch 
develop and in which we can ex- 
press ourselves." 

Have the rigorous disciplines of 
football training caused him to feel 
that he has missed anything in 
college life? 

"If people only knew the time 
we have to devote to football," he 
answered, "they would realize that 
it isn't all glory without a great 
deal of sacrifice. Take, for exam- 
ple, homecoming celebrations. The 
year Judy was queen and the year 
following, we couldn't go to the 
parade or the dance because we 
were preparing for the game. We 
don't often get to go to concerts, 

Meets a Queen 

. . . it's the queen who is usually 
swept off her feet — but not this time! 


shows, dances, or debates, and 
we're usually too tired to go to the 
victory dances. We're also ex- 
pected to maintain good grades," 
he continued. "The tale about 
instructors being easy on football 
players is just not true." 

"Virgil was away from dawn till 
dusk during football season," Judy 
added. "One of the reasons I think 
he gets so much accomplished is 
because he rarely wastes time. For 
example, when we were dating and 
he had to wait for me, he always 
brought something to study with 

The environment in which Judy 
grew up was quite different from 
Virgil's. While Virgil moved a 
great deal, Judy grew up in one 
town. One of four daughters of 
Mr. and Mrs. George Green, she 
was born in Salt Lake City. The 
family moved to Glendale, Cali- 
fornia, when she was a baby, and 
she spent the remainder of her 
growing-up years there. Her 
memories of family life and child- 
hood are happy ones. 

"We were a very close family, 
and there was lots of love. Many 
times when I was in high school," 
she recalls, "I preferred to go with 
my family rather than with friends. 
I think my dad knew more about 
me than anyone else. During the 
summers he would call up and ask 
for a 'date' with one of his daugh- 
ters. The first time he did this 
with me, I was afraid I had done 
something wrong and was going to 
be chastized. Instead, he told me 
how well he thought my life was 
progressing. He also talked to 
me about morality and the im- 
portance of being morally clean." 

When Judy's parents arranged 
for her to study dancing as a child, 
little did they realize she would 
enjoy it so much that she would 
consider making it her profession. 
"In fact," she said, "I was seriously 
intending to make it my major in 
college. But then an automobile 
accident the summer between my 

freshman and sophomore years 
changed these plans." 

This accident was a turning 
point in her life. "A car that was 
making a left-hand turn at an 
intersection couldn't complete the 
turn and smashed head-on into the 
car in which I was riding. I was 
pushed against the floor-box gear- 
shift, which had its knob missing, 
and the whole calf of my leg was 
torn off except for the bone. My 
arm was also shattered, my verte- 

brae cracked, and some ribs 
broken. The doctors said I prob- 
ably wouldn't walk again, but if I 
did, I would be crippled. 

"Up to this point," she continued, 
"I had enjoyed many material ad- 
vantages, had held lots of offices 
in school, and had had a good life. 
Then, suddenly I was flat on my 
back with the possibility of never 
walking again. I didn't believe I 
wouldn't walk, but I began to look 
at things in a different perspective. 

Many records— from 
attendance marks to points 
after touchdown— went by 
the boards as Brigham Young 
University's 1966 football 
team roared through a 
remarkable 8 wins-2 losses 

Quarterback Virgil Carter 
cut the biggest chunk out 
of the old record book. The 
brilliant senior set or 
tied National Collegiate 
Athletic Association all- 
time standards, including 
the following: 
-Most offensive plays in a 
career, 1,059 
- Most yards total offense 
in a career, 6,554 
—Most touchdown passes 
thrown in a career, tied 50 
-Most touchdowns respon- 
sible for in a career , 68 
-Most yards passing in one 
game, 515 

- Most yards total offense 
one game, 599 
The modest Mormon athlete 
also set some other marks 
for future athletes to 
run and throw at, leaving 
behind him in the Western 
Athletic Conference 19 
records, as well as the 
24 all-time BYU records 
he established. He played 
in two post-season all-star 
games, for two years in 
a row was WAC Player of the 
Year, and was chosen back 

of the week by United 
Press International, 
Associated Press, and 
Sports Illustrated in 
November 1966. 
To cap all of this, Virgil 
Carter, who entered BYU 
on an academic scholarship 
and will graduate as a 
statistics major with a 
high grade-point average, 
was for three years a member 
of the Western Athletic 
Conference All-Academic 
Football Team, and in 1965 
and 1966 was chosen for the 
second team on the Academic 
Ail-American Football 
Team by the NCAA. His 
scholarly achievements 
combined with national 
recognition for athletic 
excellence merited for him 
an NCAA scholarship award 
of $1,000 in 1966, one of 
55 such scholarships given 
to top scholar-athletes 
across the country. 
Carter's play led his 
fine BYU team to a great 
season, highlighted for 
him by a winning effort 
against Texas Western, then 
one of the leading defensive 
clubs in the nation. 
Virgil threw five touchdown 
passes in that game and 
personally amassed a 
total of 599 yards total 
offense, the most ever by 
a college football player. 


Improvement Era 

I realized there was more to life 
than just material possessions. 

"One night my condition became 
much worse. I asked two Latter- 
day Saint friends to come and ad- 
minister to me. The next morning 
my doctor examined my leg and 
said that I would walk and that 
I should be up again in two weeks." 

Judy added thoughtfully, "To me 
it was a miracle. The doctors 
marveled at the improvement in 
my leg. Our family doctor, a Lat- 
ter-day Saint, thought it was truly 
amazing. I was self-conscious about 
my leg the first year, and since then 
I've had to have five operations." 

Judy believes that "college is 
what we put into it. A person 
won't get good grades unless he 
studies for them. The most im- 
portant thing is for each of us to 
be ourselves— to be individualistic. 
If we don't care for a person, it's 
usually because we don't really 
know him. When I entered the 
Homecoming Queen contest, I de- 
cided that if people didn't like me 
for what I was, I didn't want to be 
queen. Perhaps this is why I did 
so well in the contest. I truly tried 
to be honest about myself." 

Her first meeting with Virgil took 
place after a BYU football victory 
in November 1964. "All of the 
song leaders rushed onto the field 
to congratulate the players," she re- 
members. "I purposely searched 
Virgil out to congratulate him. He 
was afraid at first to ask me for a 
date because I was Homecoming 
Queen, and I was afraid to date 
him because he was the star quar- 
terback. But our friends finally 
arranged for us to get together. We 
were pinned the following April, 
engaged by Christmastime, and 
married last July." 

Then Judy took Virgil's arm and 
added, "As far as I'm concerned, 
my temple marriage tops anything 
I have ever before done in my life, 
because the spiritual things are 
more important than material 
things." O 

April 1967 






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^^%j^\ \- 


M. DeMar Teuscher writes about politics and government in the Deseret 
News. Tush's depth coverage of politics, parties and issues, both on local and 
national levels, keeps you current. Read Teuscher's political report in your 


. ; . . .. . . .... ..■■■ ,. . . . ... . ... ■ ■ . . .. ; .. ■■■ ..-. ■ .... ■■ ..,. ... .. ,. 


The LDS Scene 

President Joseph Fielding 
Smith poses beside life-size 
bronze bust presented to 
him by M Men and Gleaners 
of his home stake, Ensign 
Stake, at a recent fireside 
program. Dr. Avard 
Fairbanks, noted Latter-day 
Saint sculptor, prepared 
the bust. The fireside 

program included a slide- 
film presentation of 
highlights in President 
Smith's life. President Bruce 
R. McConkie of the First 
Council of Seventy 
described President Smith 
as "one of the leading 
doctrinal speakers and 
scholars of the Church." 

Sp4 James Prigmore, 23-year-old Latter-day Saint 
arranger-composer for the Continental Army Band at 
Fort Monroe, Virginia, has recently composed a symphony, 
Sinfonia da Chiesa, believed to be the first major 
symphonic work on the theme of the Vietnamese war. 
Elder Prigmore, a university graduate in music 
composition and former resident composer and director 
of music for the Pasadena Playhouse in California, says his 
work is "a prayer for strength for defending freedom." 

Sister Jessie Evans Smith, 
wife of President Joseph 
Fielding Smith, has been 
named the "Outstanding 
Woman of 1967" by 
Ricks College, two-year 
Church college at Rexburg, 
Idaho. Sister Smith 
received a gold watch and 
plaque citing her for 
her distinguished career 
as a soloist, for her years 
of service with the 
Tabernacle Choir, and 
for her "devotion to and 
support of her husband 
both at home and as a 
traveling companion 
throughout the world." 

Dr. Manahi Nitama Paewai 
of the Northland District, 
New Zealand Mission, will 
receive the Order of the 
British Empire by approval 
of Her Majesty, Queen 
Elizabeth. The investiture, 
to be held at Government 
House in Auckland, will 
recognize Brother Paewai 
for his work as originator 
and president of Kaikohe 
Citizen's Advice and 
Guidance Society, which 
assists families with their 
budgeting and financial 
problems. The society 
has 71 community groups 
in New Zealand. He is also 
recognized for his work 
with handicapped children. 

Expo 67 

Accommodations for 
Latter-day Saints planning 
to attend Expo 67, 
Montreal's World Fair 
marking the centennial of 
the Dominion of Canada, 
are being made available 
through a building fund 
project of the Third 
Quorum of Elders, Canadian 
Mission. This project 
will assist Church building 
programs in the Montreal 

Two apartment-hotels will 
be available for members 

of the Church, as well 
as accommodations in 
private homes, all within 
15 minutes by subway 
from the fairgrounds. 
Expo 67 opens April 28, 
and a highlight will be 
the visit of the Salt Lake 
Tabernacle Choir August 
22 and 23. 
Persons interested in 
housing should write to: 
LDS Expo Housing Bureau, 
4981 Boulevard Perras, 
Apt. 101, Montreal North, 
Quebec, Canada. 


Improvement Era 

Bruce Preece, Rex Reeve, and J. Edwin Baird, three of seven 

Indian seminary coordinators who held recent conference at Church 

School offices in Provo, examine a miniature tableau of Navajo 

women. Brother Baird, supervisor, in noting that more than 10,600 

Indian children from kindergarten age to high school participate 

in the seminary program in Canada and 21 states of the United States, 

said, "There is a brilliant future for Indians in the gospel." 

The 1967 All-Church Basketball Tournament 

(See May Church Moves On) 

Van Nuys (California) First Ward won 89-87 over Mar Vista 
(California) in an exciting M Man battle. 

Kansas City cheerleaders, Pittsburg (California) 
rooters joined throngs of partisans who cheered 
their teams through victory or defeat. 

Centerville (Utah)Third Ward players accept junior 
championship trophy from Marvin J. Ashton, 
; YMMIA first assistant general superintendent. 

April 1967 


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Conducted by the 
Church School System 

The Techniques of "Doe 

By Ernest Eherhard, Jr. 

(Part 2) 

• Believing that responsible student evaluation of 
teachers has real merit, I once asked a senior high 
school student what, in her estimation, characterizes 
an effective teacher. After a few moments of thought- 
ful meditation she replied, "It is someone who loves 

"What do you mean, loves you?" I asked. 

Again she paused in reflection, then gave her answer 
unhesitatingly, "He is willing to listen to you. Your 
problems are important to him. He accepts you and 
tries to help you to progress." 

It will be noticed that nothing was said about the 
teacher's skill, his possession of a great fund of knowl- 
edge, his outstanding historical perspective, or his 
dazzling array of teaching techniques. 

During the thirty-three years I have been privileged 
to teach young people the gospel, I have asked many 
of them what they felt was the greatest help they 
received from their instructors in the Church. The 
most consistent reply was to the effect, "They helped 
me put my life together." 

Although they could not give a professional analysis 
of their teachers' capabilities, they could recognize 
how outstanding teachers assisted them to incorporate 
the precepts they had learned into their lives. 

The Teacher As a Person 

People act and react in a direct effort to achieve 
their primary goals in life. Probably the most impor- 
tant of these goals is the desire to prove one's self and 
to win the approval of significant persons in one's life. 
Thus the person with laudable goals in life seeks to 
win the approval of substantial, law-abiding people. 
The person of undesirable character gravitates toward 

Improvement Era 

r Teaching 


Photo by Eldon Linschoten 

those whose lives are motivated by unrighteous prin- 
ciples. The interpersonal relationship is basic to the 
control of human conduct. 

A reward that is most gratifying to a child is the 
love of an adult, whether this be the parent or a 
teacher. When the child has concrete evidence that 
his teacher loves him, he will do anything to please 
him. When he is assured of his teacher's love, he will 
continue to respond and try to emulate him. For 
instance, a well-liked coach has little need to discuss 
with members of his team the 89th Section of the 
Doctrine and Covenants if he has set such standards 
that they know he expects them to live clean lives 
and train hard. They put into practice in their own 
lives the principles they have been taught through 
example. \ 

The question now arises: How is a student to know 
his teacher loves him? 

This assurance is radiated and made manifest to 
the student in many seemingly insignificant ways. The 
teacher might notice each student in one way or 
another in each class period. It may be a handshake, 
a smile, or a cognizant meeting of eyes. If the teacher 
has shown enough interest in his students to learn their 
names, to inform himself concerning their interests, 
their goals, and their ambitions, as well as some of 
their frustrations and problems, they will sense his 
love for them. The teacher who will go out of his way 
to notice even the most modest achievements and signs 
of growth and progress on the part of his students 
will have their love and loyalty. He will also pick up 
the minimal cues students give that indicate they are 
interested in a further discussion of a principle or 
problem. Many young people find it difficult to ask 
for the privilege of telling someone their doubts, their 

fears or confusion. They will make a very modest 
approach, sometimes only an indirect one. If the 
teacher is sensitive, he can help them "come out of 
their shells" and reveal and discuss fully what really 
bothers them. 

The feeling of love and concern the teacher has for 
his students must be authentic and genuine. Children, 
especially adolescents, can detect sham and self- 
interest on the part of their teachers almost instantly. 
These, plus the betrayal of a confidence or trust, 
sound the death knell to a teacher's ability to inspire 
his students to put a gospel lesson into action. 

It is not possible to list all the steps a teacher may 
take to achieve a genuine feeling of love and trust 
for his students. Each teacher will have individual 
strengths and capacities for developing such empathy. 
He should plan and implement his own approach and 
change and strengthen it from time to time. Each 
month or so, he should sit down and objectively 
evaluate his teaching to see how much progress he 
has made, and lay plans to strengthen himself where 
this can and should be done. 

A word of warning to the teacher may be appro- 
priate here. No number of variety of teaching tech- 
niques or methods will win student confidence and 
loyalty unless there is a genuine feeling of love and 
concern on the part of the teacher. His feelings 
must arise out of his determination to remember he is 
dealing with an eternal being, a literal child of a 
Heavenly Father whose love and concern for his child 
are beyond the comprehension of even the most de- 
voted teacher. Only when he relates to his students 
in this frame of reference will he be considered a 
worthy exemplar after whom they can pattern their 
own lives. — *» 

April 1967 


One of the least understood and 
yet most meaningful statements 
the Savior made for our guidance 
is contained in the instruction that 
we should "love our neighbors as 
ourselves." He knew without any 
doubt that it is impossible to do 
the one without the other. Profes- 
sional people who deal with be- 
behavior say 80 percent of the 
people they counsel have a weak 
self-image. These people distrust 
themselves, do not like their own 
personalities, and project their 
feelings of inadequacy and failure 
to those with whom they deal. The 
ego mediates, or screens, every 
impression and experience an indi- 
vidual has. If it is threatening or 
discordant in any way to his ego, he 
rejects it or puts it in a light that 
will permit him to ignore it. This is 
what is meant in the scripture, "A 
man's heart deviseth his way. . . ." 
(Prov. 16:9.) 

Intellectually, the student may 
concede that what he is being 
taught is wholly logical and ration- 
al, but since he does not feel strong 
enough to carry it out or change 
the direction of his life, he declines 
the exhortation to put it into prac- 
tice. He may go so far as to ver- 
balize the principle taught. That is, 
if it were in a school class where 
he needed to give a "correct" 
answer to get a good grade, he 
would learn to repeat an answer 
that would give him such a mark. 
He would, however, feel that any 
attempt to incorporate the precept 
into his goal-seeking activities in 
life was not part of the learning 
process. Contrast this attitude with 
that of the 3,000 who heard Peter 
preach his memorable sermon on 
the day of Pentecost: 

"Now when they had heard this, 
they were pricked in their heart, 
and said unto Peter and to the rest 
of the apostles, Men and brethren, 
what shall we do?" (Acts 2:37.) 

Here we have a perfect sequence 
of doer teaching. Those present 
"heard" the instructions; that is, 
they received the information fully 

and correctly. More important, they 
had been "pricked in their heart." 
Because of the development of a 
bias-positive, they were ready to 
move on to the most vital step in 
the teaching process by wanting to 
be involved in a personal applica- 
tion. Their question was, "What 
shall we do?" 

The reasons people are "pricked 
in their heart" are many. No doubt 
Peter's hearers were convinced of 
his sincerity, the depth and quality 
of his testimony, and his love for 
them, as expressed in his desire to 
have them benefit by accepting the 
gospel of Jesus Christ. In much the 
same way, students are "pricked in 
their hearts" when they sense their 
teachers have their personal, indi- 
vidual interests at heart. If they 
can feel that their teachers have 
genuine confidence in their ability 
to develop and hold good attitudes 
and pursue acceptable goals, they 
are much more inclined to take the 
steps necessary to achieve such 
growth. Teachers should carefully 
evaluate each lesson they teach to 
make certain every student has re- 
ceived personalized encouragement 
to grow strong in some aspect of 
the gospel principles on which the 
lesson was based. 

Students must feel that the 
teacher has a deep, constant sta- 
bility and dedication to the prin- 
ciples he is teaching. They must 
sense he has the witness of the 
Spirit of the Lord. They must also 
sense that he has applied gospel 
principles to a wide spectrum of life 
and found them a sound foundation 
on which to build life. 

If human beings are ever to be- 
come self-directing, to use their 
free agency fully and properly, they 
must acquire confidence in their 
ability to determine their own 
actions and goals in life. This means 
that the teacher must help them see 
the why of their actions and help 
them to anticipate the end results 
of the same. The teacher should see 
himself as a guide, not a dispenser 
of information. The effective teach- 

er gives his students help and 
direction only after they have done 
all they can to determine their own 
goals and course of action. 

An illustration of this type of 
teaching might involve the decision 
of young people of whether or not 
to be social drinkers. The effective 
teacher would help his students 
weigh the advantages and disad- 
vantages of social drinking over the 
whole spectrum of its effect on 
their lives. He would help them 
weigh the limited value of the 
social acceptance the cocktail hour 
might provide against the stark 
reality of the ever-present possi- 
bility of personality disintegration, 
narcotics addiction, involvement in 
law breaking, serious bodily injury 
to self and others, increased 
susceptibility to disease, loss of 
home and family, vocational failure 
and pauperism, living the later 
years of life on skid row and, most 
important of all, the spiritual de- 
struction that would result in the 
loss of a life of eternal joy. When 
the teacher has helped his students 
make a full exploration of the prob- 
lem, they should be told that the 
responsibility for using their free 
agency properly is now theirs. They 
must decide what course they will 

The teacher should anticipate 
the need to help his students solve 
the short-range problems that will 
arise out of their decision not to be 
social drinkers. For example, when 
they leave home for additional 
schooling they may find that those 
who are in a position to promote or 
hinder their vocational success will 
exert a persistent, subtle pressure 
to "have just a little sip once in a 
while." At this point, students will 
not need another lesson on the 
Word of Wisdom. They will need 
help to resist the personal pressure 
of people who are vocationally 
capable but are spiritually under- 
developed or dead. They will need 
help in maintaining the long-range 
perspective they had while in the 
teacher's class. 


Improvement Era 

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April 1967 


It is generally agreed a student 
learns only what he carries through 
to an experience. The experience 
may involve only the mind and 
emotions, or it may be an overt act. 
Teachers generally give full verbal 
assent to this principle. However, 
they do not carry their teaching 
through to an experience. The very 
terminology used affirms this. Stu- 
dents are said to gather facts, ab- 
sorb learning, hunger and thirst for 
knowledge, or devour their books. 
The principle that learning is an 
experience, an outward reaction, is 
not new. 

Since human beings have the 
capacity to have experiences vicar- 
iously, that is, by using their 
imaginations through mental trial 
and error, teachers should plan 
their lessons so the religious history 
and lessons they teach will result 
in such a real life application. This 
means that the teacher must pre- 
sent his lessons so they fit into the 
age, concept, and developmental 
levels of his students. The lessons 
must contain attainable steps 
toward the students' goals in daily 
life. In some instances, it will be 
necessary for teachers to help their 
students create, alter, or further 
develop their goals before they can 
be motivated to utilize lesson 
materials. No doubt the Savior had 
this in mind when he said, "Blessed 
are they who do hunger and thirst 
after righteousness: for they shall 
be filled." (Matt. 5:6.) He fully 
recognized that an individual's life 
goals must be strong and attractive 
before he can be "filled," or helped 
to grow and develop. 

How can we involve students in 
learning experiences? We can: 

1. Let students know why they 
are studying certain topics. At the 
beginning of each lesson, clearly 
state the principle or principles in- 
volved. Throughout the lesson, let 
students indicate the place or im- 
portance of the principles in their 

2. Give students opportunities 
to indicate specific ways in which 

each lesson applies to their lives. 
They should be motivated to think 
of definite, detailed steps that must 
be followed if the principles are to 
be satisfactorily implemented in 
their lives. 

3. Remember that generaliza- 
tion is the downfall of doer teach- 
ing. Students must experience, 
vicariously or otherwise, each step 
they must follow if they are to 
successfully apply gospel principles 
to their lives. 

4. Make applications realistic as 
to the capabilities, experience back- 
ground, and developmental level 
of students. Lessons should be 
carefully graduated; that is, start 
with easy, limited performance, 
and develop into more difficult 
applications. For example, the 
teacher might suggest three smiles 
a day, complimenting one person, 
and holding the tongue in check 
once during each day, rather than 
setting up a program of always 
smiling and complimenting others 
and never losing control of the 

5. Be aware that students per- 
form more consistently and fully 
when they have definite, reason- 
able deadlines of action. "Anytime" 
goals have little motivating power. 
If a lesson on tithing is taught, the 
goal should be to pay tithing that 

By Tim Smart 

Harken, the dark approaches; 

Death is on its way, 

With its long, velvet veil in the 

pale light of dusk, 
And its mists of silvery gray. 

Closer it comes in the dimness, 
Softly the night comes on; 
And then its soft veil settles, 
And dusk is suddenly dawn. 

day, or at least before the next 
lesson is taught. 

6. Consistently reinforce atti- 
tude, growth, and behavior change. 
Teachers should often check back 
with each student to determine 
what progress he or she is making. 
They should encourage and com- 
pliment their students and reward 
them with approval. There are 
many who feel we are losing a great 
opportunity to strengthen and re- 
inforce those who are already living 
gospel principles but who still need 
encouragement and reinforcement. 
Too often young people are given 
little personal attention because 
they do not outwardly cause par- 
ents and teachers concern. 

7. Help students propose learn- 
ing experiences that have obvious 
results— results that they and those 
whose approval they seek will be 
able to see. Overt reactions have an 
aura of reality about them and 
make the application of the prin- 
ciple seem authentic and rational. 

8. Consistent attitude and be- 
havior change depends on the 
individual's having a sense of 
worth, a sense of destiny. Teachers 
of religious education should strive 
constantly to improve their stu- 
dents' sense of self-worth. They 
can help their students by pointing 
out that the Lord will reward them 
more because of how well they do 
their work in life and the Church 
rather than for the positions they 
hold. It should be constantly em- 
phasized how highly important 
each individual is to God the 
Father and his Son Jesus Christ in 
achieving the immortality and 
eternal life of all mankind. It 
should be pointed out that this is 
the golden era of all time, an era 
to which all prophets of the past 
have looked with longing. Students 
should be helped to see that their 
worth lies not in being on the earth 
at this particular time, or even in 
being members of the Church, but 
rather in being the most consistent 
"doers of the word" who have ever 
lived on earth. O 


Improvement Era 

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the high-profit TBA area. It begins 
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Example: Conoco's heavy duty 
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a full 3-year guarantee. First-year 
replacement is free. The charge for 
replacement during the next two 
years is on a pro rata basis, covering 
only the months battery was in serv- 
ice. It's a persuasive sales point. 

And it's typical of the down-the- 
line backing our dealers enjoy. Valu- 
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counsel is theirs for the asking 
along with employee training, pro 
motional and merchandising help 
TBA programs, financing, premi 
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Us come to life on your own TV! 


Improvement Era 




APRIL 6, 1830 

Idle lay the land 

On Whitmer's farm, 

The spring too wet and 

Early for the plow; 

The trees still bare 

In winter's somber clothes; 

The weather fitful, 

One time bringing 


Then rain, then 

Sun, then snow again. 

Just expect a change, 

The natives said. 

The Whitmer cabin, sturdy, 

Made of mortised logs, as many 

Cabins were in that far day, 


Firm against the storms 

Of winter or of spring. 

And here, within the 

Cabin walls, were 

Gathered six 

Young, sober-minded men. 

Before them stood the Prophet 

Joseph Smith, newly called of God. 

m - 

. ■ , . i 

■ .-.■■.■ ■ ■ 

The vote confirmed the law 

And made the Church 

A legal body in the state. 

The six were then baptized, 

Confirmed into the Church, 

Received the Holy Ghost 

Given by the leading elders. 

In turn they stood and prophesied 

The future of this Church, 

Its growing in the land, 

Until, like Daniel's stone, 

The earth would fill with 

Knowledge of the Christ's redeeming 


By President S. Dilworth Young 

Of the First Council of the Seventy 

Illustrated by Ed Maryon 

This is a second installment of 
excerpts from a long poem 
about the Prophet Joseph Smith, 
to he published in book form 
in October 1967 under the title 
The Long Road— Vermont 
to Carthage. 

And now this is God's 
Will, he said, 
To organize the Church 
Decreed in heaven, 
And now revealed to earth. 
And would they vote- 
Sustaining vote— to 
Uphold Joseph Smith as 
First elder of the Church? 
And Oliver as 
Second elder too? 
They would, and showed 
Their affirmation 
With hands upheld, 
Six hands, 

Six calloused, toil-worn 

They did not hear the heavenly choir 

Sing praise, 

Nor did they notice Satan's 

Muttered threat, 

And yet they knew 

That this small, simple act 

By simple men, 

Restored Christ's living Church 

To earth again. 

April 1967 



SUM ■■■.,:,-■■..■ , ■ ' 


^.*v^— ;-■:•;;}»»- ^,-<::^ f 

-SHS*' ■ ■^ 

«B#r ■■■■ 




js i •■ ' 



All days must end; 

This day of marvels 

As all others do. 

The darkening landscape 

Has not changed. 

Here and there 

A candle twinkles forth, 

Its tiny light a beacon 

To home-coming men. 

The new Church members 

Look the same 

As yesterday, when 

Ordinary things were taking place. 

They wend 

Their slow way home, 

Sobered, it is true, 

And filled with awe 

And wonderment, 

Marveling at the 

Things which have been 


The stars come out, 
The night birds call, 
The early peepers 
Trill in nearby ponds. 
And tired men, 
Their hunger satisfied, 
Retire to rest 
On corn-shuck beds 
To sleep the night away. 
And morning comes and 
Yet another day. 

The land must still be plowed, 

And planted too, 

The livestock sheltered, fed, 

The cows milked, clearing done, 


More land readied 

For the planting. 

Things don't change. 

But these few men— 
Their lives would 
Never be the same 



Improvement Era 

Meet a national resource named Steve 

Steve is a cross-country track man, an artist, 
and an explorer of worlds that do not 
exist. That toothpick model is an attempt 
to study what lies beyond our three 
known dimensions. 

At the 1966 International Science Fair, 
Steve won a ribbon for his theory of 
dimensions. But he didn't stop 
there. He believes the number of other 
dimensions is limitless, and is hard 
at work to prove it. 

Why our interest in Steve? Because 

young people are our greatest national 
resource. They deserve all the help they 
can get toward realizing their potentials. 

Contributing to science fairs, providing 
scholarships and fellowships, refinery 
tours and geology tours, and teaching 
materials for schools, are just some of the 
ways our Company shows its active 
interest in today's young men and women. 

Standard Oil is trying to help young people 
discover more about themselves . . . 
and the world they live in. 

Standard Oil Company of California 

and its worldwide family of Chevron Companies 

The Chevron — 
Sign of excellence 

April 1967 



up to 20% on some titles 

Details on how you can obtain your LDS books at 
these savings available on request, or the details 
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By Milton V. 
Backman, Jr. 

(Part 2) 

English theologians recognized 
the unorthodox teaching of Mor- 
monism, for in 1841, shortly after 
the message of the Restoration had 
been carried to the British Isles, 
they branded Latter-day Saints as 
Unitarians and critics of the 
Trinity. 9 

Since the Prophet's teachings on 
the separate nature of the Father 
and the Son were well known by 
the Saints, Joseph did not astound 
the LDS congregation in 1844 
when he spoke on multiple Gods. 
The Prophet exclaimed that when- 
ever he had preached on the 
subject of the Deity he had taught 
"the plurality of Gods." "It has 
been preached by the Elders for 
fifteen years," he continued. "I 
have always declared God to be a 
distinct personage, Jesus Christ a 
separate and distinct personage 
from God the Father, and the Holy 
Ghost was a distinct personage and 
a Spirit: and these three constitute 
three distinct personages and three 
Gods." 10 

After rejecting the doctrine of a 
Trinity of one essence, as the 
Lmitarians of Channing's age had 
done, Joseph Smith restored a 
unique doctrine of the nature of 
Christ's body. Although most 
Christians believed in the resur- 
rection of the body and asserted 
that Christ was the "first-fruits" of 

the resurrection, they were forced 
to disembody Christ after his 
ascension in order to conform with 
the principles of the Nicene Creed. 
Joseph Smith revealed the truth 
that Christ retained his body of 
flesh and bones. 

The Book of Mormon describes 
clearly the literal resurrection of 
the body. This doctrine was also 
expressed in numerous revelations 
recorded by the Prophet and was 
circulated in Mormon publica- 
tions. ". . . the spirit and the body 
are the soul of man," was revealed 
to Joseph in 1832; "And the resur- 
rection from the dead is the re- 
demption of the soul." (D&C 

"All will be raised by the power 
of God," the Prophet wrote ten 
years later in the Times and Sea- 
sons, "having spirit in their bodies 
and not blood." Flesh and blood 
cannot enter heaven, but flesh and 
bones, quickened by the Spirit of 
God, can. Moreover, Joseph Smith 
taught that man is resurrected after 
the pattern of Christ's resurrection. 
Death, he alleged, separated 
Christ's body and spirit, and when 
the spirit departed, the body was 
dead; but the body lived again 
when the spirit by the power of the 
resurrection reunited with it. 11 

At a conference held in Nauvoo 
on October 3, 1841, the Prophet 

Improvement Era 

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"The ERA 
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explained that while Christ's body 
was lying in the sepulcher, he was 
a ministering or disembodied spirit, 
but after his resurrection, "J esus 
Christ went in body ... to minister 
to resurrected bodies." 12 

Nowhere can one find in the 
scriptures nor in the writings of the 
Prophet any indication that Christ 
was disembodied after his ascen- 
sion. The Prophet said to the 
Saints at Ramus, Illinois, April 2, 
1843: "The Father has a body of 
flesh and bones as tangible as 
man's; the Son also; but the Holy 
Ghost ... is a personage of Spirit." 
(D&C 130:22.) These instructions 
and many of the recorded sermons 
delivered by the Prophet were car- 
ried to Utah by the pioneers. De- 
prived of the authority and many 
of the teachings of the Prophet, ah 
apostasy plagued those who drifted 
from the Church, just as a pesti- 
lence of spiritual darkness had crept 
over primitive Christianity. 

In order to justify their condem- 
nation of the "Utah Mormon" doc- 
trine of God, non-LDS authors are 
forced to deny the validity of many 
reported discourses of the Prophet. 
It is true that errors may have been 
made in transcribing the precise 
words employed by Joseph Smith, 
but there is no evidence that his 
basic teachings were changed. 

In addition to the Prophet's re- 
corded witness, there is other 
evidence that Joseph Smith taught 
the plurality and anthropomorphic 
concepts of Deity. These tenets are 
also found in the writings of other 
leaders of the Church and in the 
description of Mormon theology 
by non-Mormons, prior to the 
Prophet's martyrdom. 

In the "Lectures on Faith," the 
Father is depicted as a spirit and 
the Son as a personage of taber- 
nacle, "made or fashioned like unto 
a man ... or rather, man was 
formed after his likeness and in his 
image." The discourse concludes 
that Christ "is also in the likeness 
of the personage of the Father." 13 
Since the Prophet taught that 

spirit was substance and was eter- 
nal, and that the resurrected body 
was spiritual, there is no contra- 
diction, as some have contended, in 
the statement that the Father is 
spirit and Christ is a personage of 
tabernacle. 14 "All spirit is matter, 
but it is more fine or pure," the 
Prophet declared. (D&C 131:7.) 

On another occasion he stated 
that "man is spirit. The elements 
are eternal, and spirit and element, 
inseparably connected, receive a 
fulness of joy. . . ." (D&C 93:33.) 
By the tripartite comparison, the 
"Lectures on Faith" definitely im- 
ply that the Father and the Son, 
who is in "His 'express image,' ' 
possess material bodies in form 
like the created man. 

Six years before the Prophet's 
death, Parley P. Pratt published a 
blistering denunciation of the 
medieval or traditional concept of 
the Trinity: 

"I must say, that I never saw 
such a bundle of nonsense, contra- 
diction and absurdity, thrown to- 
gether before. 

"1st. A God without body or 
parts, consisting of three persons. 

"2nd. One of these persons, who 
is very God, was crucified, dead 
and buried (without body or 
parts!). . . . 

"4th. This God (without body or 
parts) arose from the dead, and 
took upon him his body, when he 
had nbne; but to cap the climax, 
he has gone to Heaven, there to 
remain, till He comes to judge the 
world at the last day. . . . 

"Here then is the Methodist God, 
without either eyes, ears or mouth! 
And yet man was created after the 
image of God; but this could not 
apply to the Methodist God, for he 
has no image or likeness! . . . 

"We worship a God who has 
both body and parts." 15 

In 1840, John Taylor also pub- 
lished a comparison between Mor- 
mon and Methodist theology. After 
quoting Parley P. Pratt's critique, 
he affirmed Latter-day Saint belief 
in an anthropomorphic God. 16 — >- 

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The ERA 

/ / 

in every 


In another tract published in 
1844, entitled Immortality and 
Eternal Life of the Material Body, 
Parley P. Pratt used Christ as an 
example "of a material organiza- 
tion; of flesh and bones actually 
rescued from the dominion of 
death and the grave, and made im- 
mortal, and capable of eternal 
existence." Then he compared the 
nature of the Father's body with 
that of his Son. "God, the Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ," he rea- 
soned, "is everywhere in the 
scripture revealed as a being pos- 
sessing bodily organization in all 
its parts. . . . From all these facts 
we learn that God the Father has 
a real and substantial existence in 

Seagull Monument in Spring 
By Helen Reed Moffitt 

Your lifeless eyes look down on 

Who pass through Temple Square; 
Your voiceless call, a welcome cry, 
To all who enter there, 
Your shining wings, so pure and 

Washed clean by April rain. 
Bird of beauty, who has endured 

Decades, will remain. 

Symbol of prayers by faithful pio- 
For growing field; 
God's emissary, sent by him, to 
Spare a harvest yield. 
Not to foreign lands your kind 
Need ever roam. 

White gull, full of grace, God made 
Mount Zion your home. 

human form and proportions, like 
Jesus Christ, and like man." He 
admitted that God was a spirit, 
but he defined spirit the same as 
the Prophet did, as matter, "al- 
though of a refined nature." 17 

Since Joseph Smith restored a 
unique concept of God, his con- 
temporaries readily recognized that 

his teachings were distinct. In a 
summary of Mormon theology, one 
of the more influential anti-Mor- 
mon authors, J. B. Turner, professor 
at Illinois College, charged, "I have 
reserved one choice specimen of 
'Mormon logic and literal interpre- 
tation of the Scriptures,' with 
which to grace the climax of the 
Mormon Babel." The Mormon 
concept of God, he indignantly al- 
leged, is the cornerstone of Mormon 
doctrine. All men should examine 
"this hideous and blasphemous 
abortion of all scripture, all reason, 
all decency, and all sense!" The 
Mormon literal interpretation of 
the scriptures, Turner avowed, 
"involves giving to Deity a human 
form, and implements of human 
enterprise." However, the profes- 
sor admitted that Mormon argu- 
ments in defense of the concept of 
God appeared reasonable. "A Mor- 
mon in debate with a sectarian," 
he contended, "is like the Irish- 
man's flea: he can feel his bite, 
but when he puts his finger 
where he is, he is not there. . . . 
They are at least vexatious and 
troublesome opponents." 18 

Henry Caswall, a professor of 
divinity at Kemper College, Mis- 
souri, was also acquainted with 
Mormon and non-Mormon litera- 
ture. In his work The Prophet of 
the Nineteenth Century, published 
in 1843, Caswall declared, "The 
Mormons deny that 'God is a spirit 
without body, parts, or passions,' 
and assign him a human form, with 
human feelings and instruments of 
human enterprise." Again vindi- 
cating a teaching of the Prophet, 
the professor affirmed that the 
Mormons believe God is "ma- 
terial." 19 

Joseph Smith not only restored 
to mankind knowledge pertaining 
to the nature of Christ's resur- 
rected body, but he also revealed a 
novel nineteenth century concept 
of the nature of Christ's pre-mortal 
body. While translating the Book 
of Mormon, the latter-day Prophet 

Improvement Era 

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April 1967 


learned that man's physical body 
was patterned after Christ's spiri- 
tual body. Christ told the brother 
of Jared that "as I appear unto 
thee to be in the spirit will I ap- 
pear unto my people in the flesh." 
(Eth. 3:16.) 

An anti-Mormon editor of Zion's 
Watchman, L. R. Sunderland, de- 
nounced the Book of Mormon be- 
cause Christ, before his birth in the 
meridian of time, showed his finger 

to the brother of Jared, and it was 
"as the finger of man like unto 
flesh and blood." "Of course, the 
Lord's finger appears as the finger 
of a man," retorted Parley P. Pratt 
in 1838 to Sunderland's charges, "or 
man could not be created after His 
image and likeness. . . . Why wor- 
ship a God who has no ears, mouth 
nor eyes?" 20 

In a revelation received in 1833, 
the Prophet learned of the eternal 



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nature of Christ and all others who 
were born or will be born on this 
earth. "... I was in the beginning 
with the Father," Christ informed 
Joseph Smith, "and am the First- 
born. . . . Man was also in the 
beginning with God." (D&C 93:21, 
29.) Moreover, Joseph Smith re- 
stored the unique concept that the 
Father is literally the Father of the 
spirits of all men, including the 
spirit of Christ, and that Jesus is 
our Elder Brother. 

In other revelations, Joseph 
learned that Lucifer, another of 
God's spiritual children, "sought to 
destroy the agency of man" and 
was therefore cast out of heaven. 
The Father's plan of redemption 
was accepted, after which the 
Savior of mankind, under the direc- 
tion of the Father, created this 
earth and other worlds. (Moses 
1:32-33; 4:1-3.) 

Joseph Smith also revealed to 
mankind a more comprehensive 
description of life beyond the 
grave, including the meaning of 
Christ's statement that all who ac- 
cepted him would become one 
with God. 

The Prophet's teachings concern- 
ing a literal resurrection of the body 
and the eternal life of man agreed 
in some respects with provisions in 
many creeds of Christendom. His 
doctrine that Christ's atonement 
was not limited but applied to all 
men was similar to the claims of 
the Universalists. 

The Prophet also agreed with 
those who denounced the literal 
interpretation of a hell of fire and 
brimstone, and in a general way 
with the Roman Catholics in their 
concept that there was an inter- 
mediate or preparatory stage be- 
tween death and a final judgment. 
Moreover, he approved of the 
teachings of denominations that 
taught the necessity of baptism for 
entrance into God's kingdom. 

The Prophet restored knowledge 
of Christ's mission to paradise, the 
divisions in the spirit world, and 

Improvement Era 

the Savior's opening the gates for 
missionary work to be conducted 
in the spirit prison. He unfolded 
the program by which all men 
would be granted the opportunity 
to learn the gospel and receive the 
ordinances essential for eternal life. 
He aptly described God's mansions 
in heaven. He taught unique con- 
cepts of the nature and purposes 
of temples, including baptism for 
the dead, endowments, and celes- 
tial marriage. 

If man is obedient to God's laws, 
the Prophet said that he would 
inherit the celestial kingdom, 
live with God, receive the 
title of "god," have eternal increase, 
and therefore be one with God. 
And the Prophet averred that the 
work and glory of Christ is "to 
bring to pass the immortality and 
eternal life of man." (Moses 1:39.) 

The reality of these doctrines is 
continually found in Joseph Smith's 
recorded revelations and discourses, 
verified by Mormon and non- 
Mormon writers. His teachings on 
the nature and mission of Christ 
and many other subjects continue 
to bear evidence of the Prophet's 
calling. The doctrines unfolded 
by the Prophet were based upon 
revelation, inspiration, and trans- 
lation. . He was not primarily a 
popularizer. The fact that he pro- 
mulgated inspired doctrines, unique 
to his age, is accepted evidence by 
his followers that he was divinely 
summoned to inaugurate the dis- 
pensation of the fullness of times. 


B The Imposture Unmasked ( 2nd ed., Isle of 
Man, 1841), p. 31. 

^Documentary History of the Church, Vol. 6, 
pp. 473-74. 

n Times and Seasons, April 1, 1842; April 
15, 1842; DHC, Vol. 6, pp. 51-52. 

12 DHC, Vol. 4, pp. 424-26. 

ls Messenger and Advocate, May 1835. 

14 LaMar Peterson, "Problems in Mormon 
Text" (unpublished manuscript, Brigham Young 
University, 1957). 

]5 Parley P. Pratt, Writings of Parley Parker 
Pratt, ed. Parker Pratt Robison ( Deseret News 
Press, 1952). pp. 219, 32-33. 

lc John Taylor, Truth Defended and Method- 
ism Weighed in the Balance and Found Want- 
ing (Liverpool, 1840), p. 6. 

17 Pratt, Writings, pp. 35-36, 40-41. 

18 J. B. Turner, Mormonism in All Ages (New 
York, 1842), pp. 240, 243, 287. 

19 Henry Caswall, The Prophet of the Nine- 
teenth Century (London, 1843), pp. 95-96. 

20 Pratt, Writings, pp. 201, 219. 

April 1967 

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Today's Family 

By Florence B. Pinnock 

Step Softly into Spring 

A five-year-old boy ran into the 
house the first day of spring and 
said, "Now when I walk I squash, 
not squeak." Nature has softened, 
and the crunchiness of frozen 
paths has given way to puddles of 
water and spongy soil. As Mother 
Nature turns up the temperature 
and the earth relaxes from stringent 
weather, we too can unwind and 
step softly into a gentle season. 

Stepping softly has connotations 
other than lifting one foot up and 
putting it down. We can step softly 
with our minds, our tongues, and 
our actions. Too often we leap and 
then think, or we quickly express 
ourselves without being considerate 
and understanding of the other 
person. This spring we will take a 
giant step forward if thought comes 
before words, if we keep silent 
more often, and if we step softly 
when another's feelings are in 
jeopardy. Let's tiptoe into spring. 

Two Dozen Springboards 
to Spring 

1. Set goals to be accomplished 
before summer. 

help you to reach these goals. 

3. Organize yourself — pigeon- 
hole duties in order to sidestep 

4. Relax and let the spring rains 
wash away tension. 

5. Look out of clean windows, 
because you have cleaned them and 
they seem extra shiny. 

6. Buy something new— a hat, a 
dress, or a daffodil. 

7. Balance your wants and your 

8. Take time to pick violets. 

9. Discover the radiance of a 
spring sunrise. 

10. Feel the gentleness of a 
spring evening. 

11. Enjoy the sensation of black 
soil running through your fingers. 

12. Thrill to the first hyacinth. 

13. Be conscious of that early 

14. Listen to nature awakening. 

15. Be understanding of young 

16. Discard sulphur and molas- 
ses in favor of a strong interest in 
something or someone. 

2. Make a workable plan to 17. Realize that temper has no 

place in this awakening. He who 
loses his temper usually loses. 

18. Smile a "good morning" even 
though it might be raining. 

19. Be conscious of your con- 
science. Listen as it nudges you. 
Let that still, small voice guide you 
on your way. 

20. Renew yourself. Getting 
along depends on your own be- 

21. Light a brand new candle. 
Your enthusiasm will make life 
worth living for you and for those 
around you. 

22. Use everything you have. 
Don't half live— all the ages are 

23. Take a walk with a small 
child and see through his eyes. 

24. As a wise man once said, 
"Realize that it doesn't much mat- 
ter where you are this spring, but 
it does matter how you act. Know 
that it doesn't matter so much what 
happens to you, but it does matter 
how you react." 

Happy, happy spring! 


Even when spring is springing, 
there comes a day when a bowl of 


Improvement Era 

good hot soup is just right. On this 
occasion the temperature has fallen 
and spring seems a lifetime away. 
Greet the youngsters with hot soup 
as they run home for lunch, or add 
its fragrance to say "welcome 
home" at dinner time. 

There are two ways to make soup 
—one in an "all- day soup pot," 
starting with a beef shank and 
vegetables to be simmered for 
hours, or in a modern approach, 
using canned bouillon and soups 
supplemented by a few imaginative 
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recipes; the results will be nourish- 
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table in minutes. Form a new habit 
in your life and make soup the 
"instant" way. 

Baked Bean Soup Pot 

(6 to 8 servings) 

8 slices bacon, cut in 1-inch pieces 

3 cups milk 

1 can (1 pound) pork and beans in 

tomato sauce 
Salt and pepper to taste 
1 lemon, thinly sliced 

Crisp the bacon and pour off drippings. 
Add milk and half of the beans, which 
have been mashed. Stir in the other half 
of the beans unmashed. Heat the soup 
to serving temperature, stirring occa- 
sionally. Season and serve with a thin 
slice of lemon floating on top. 

Beefy Soup 

(10 servings) 

iy 2 cups water 

2 cups shredded potatoes 

3 tablespoons chopped onion 

4 tablespoons butter 
1 tablespoon flour 

4 cups milk 

1 package (3y 2 ounces) smoked 

sliced beef 
1 can (83^ ounces) whole kernel 
14 teaspoon celery seed 
1 cup dairy sour cream 
Salt, pepper 
Chopped parsley 

Golden Potato Soup 

(6 to 7 servings) 

Boil potatoes and onion in the water 
until tender. Melt butter, stir in flour, 
and add milk, stirring constantly. Add 
this sauce to the cooked potatoes and 
onions. Stir in beef, which has been cut 
into small pieces, undrained corn, and 
celery seed. Add more milk if too thick. 
Gently blend in sour cream. Season 
with salt and pepper. Serve with minced 
parsley sprinkled on top. 

April 1967 

tablespoons butter 
cup chopped onions 
cups shredded carrots 
can condensed cream 

cups milk 
teaspoon salt 
teaspoon celery salt 

Dash of nutmeg 

Pepper to taste 

Melt butter; stir in onion and carrots. 
Cover and simmer over low heat until 




carrots are almost tender. Stir in the 
soup; gradually stir in milk. Add the 
seasonings and heat to serving tem- 
perature, stirring occasionally. Garnish 
with buttered popped corn, if desired. 

of potato Soup Medley 

(6 servings) 

1 cup cooked meat, chicken, or turkey 

1 cup cooked vegetables 

1 can cream of mushroom soup 

1 soup can milk, or more if a thin 

soup is desired 

cup water 
Seasonings to taste 


Since 1951 alone, U.S. Steel has spent an 
estimated $200 million for the installation 
of devices for the abatement of air and 
water pollution. 

A big problem remains, however. It is 
the matter of designing the most efficient 
and economical devices, and that's a diffi- 
cult job. In many cases, it costs as much— 
sometimes more— to remedy the final five 
per cent of air or water pollutants as it 
does the first 95 per cent. That final five 
per cent is the tough one. 

U.S. Steel's $200 million investment in 

cleaner air and water indicates pretty well 
our attitude toward pollution control; and 
each new facility we build is equipped with 
the latest available antipollution devices. 

And we'll be spending more millions on 
air and water pollution control as we con- 
tinue our expansion and modernization 
programs all across the country, because 
United States Steel believes it has an obli- 
gation to its neighbors to help conserve 
natural resources. 

And, besides, we breathe the air and 
drink the water, too. 

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Combine the ingredients; heat, stirring 
constantly. Serve. 

Salmon Bisque 

(8 servings) 

4 tablespoons butter 

y 3 cup finely chopped onion 

Y 3 cup finely chopped green pepper 

Y 2 cup finely chopped celery 

3 tablespoons flour 
1 teaspoon salt 

y 8 teaspoon pepper 

4 cups milk 

1 cup (7 3 /4 ounces) salmon, drained, 
boned, and broken into chunks 

2 tablespoons chopped pimiento 
14 cup sliced ripe olives 

Melt butter; saute onion, green pepper, 
and celery over low heat until tender. 
Stir in flour, salt, and pepper. Remove 
from heat; gradually stir in milk. Cook 
over medium heat, stirring constantly 
until thickened. Add salmon, pimiento. 
and sliced ripe olives. Heat to serving 

Oniony Soup 

(10 servings) 

y 2 cup butter 

3 cups sliced onions 
1 tablespoon flour 

1 teaspoon onion salt 

5 to 6 cups milk 

2 cans condensed vegetable soup 
French bread, cut in 1-inch slices 

2 cups shredded Swiss cheese 

Melt butter; saute onions until tender 
but not brown. Stir in flour and onion 
salt. Remove from heat; gradually stir 
in milk. Return to heat and bring just 
to boiling point; reduce heat and sim- 
mer 5 minutes. Add vegetable soup; 
heat to serving temperature. Half-fill 
soup bowls with soup. Float a slice of 
French bread on top, and sprinkle with 
1 tablespoon Swiss cheese. Pour addi- 
tional soup over bread to fill bowl. 
Sprinkle with additional Swiss cheese. 
Garnish with a dash of paprika. 

Frankly Soup 

(6 to 8 servings) 

2 tablespoons butter 
14 cup chopped onion 
1 can condensed green pea soup 

1 can condensed vegetable soup 
2 / 3 cup instant nonfat dry milk 

2 cups water, or more if a thinner 
soup is desired 

y 2 pound frankfurters, cut into V^-inch 

Melt butter; saute onion until tender 
but not brown. Add soups and nonfat 
dry milk; gradually stir in the water. 
Add frankfurters, and heat, stirring 

Tomato Consomme 

Blend condensed consomme with equal 
parts tomato juice; heat. Garnish with 
grated orange rind. This is delicious 
served as an appetizer with cheese 


• Experience is a great teacher — 
that is, if we are willing to learn 
from the acts of others and if we 
are alert to our own mistakes. 
Wouldn't it be a good idea if we 
were able to do a thing as well 
the first time as the second? 
Hindsight is so much more ac- 
curate than foresight in alleviating 

Each month this column will 
have a suggestion for a better way 
to do something. Many things 
are learned the hard way. Per- 
haps here we can help you to 
avoid the mistakes others have 
made and do it right the very first 

Hint for April: Have you ever 
mixed sour cream in a dressing or 

sauce along with vinegar or lemon 
juice and found that the product 
has become thin? Simple remedy 
— -just put it in the refrigerator. It 
will return to its original con- 
sistency. Also, did you know that 
most dairy sour cream can be 
whipped? Follow general direc- 
tions for whipping cream. It will 
take about five minutes. The sour 
cream will thin out at the begin- 
ning of the whipping process, but 
it will thicken up again. It will 
not become as thick as whipping 
cream, but it will double in volume. 
This is good for those watching 
calories — you could use two full 
tablespoons and get just the 
calories of one tablespoon of dairy 
sour cream. O 

Improvement Era 

Illustrated by Phyllis Luch 

Home, Sweet Home 

• A time comes when them are 
two of you. Perhaps a bride and 
groom have just said, "I do." Or 
maybe the years have passed, the 
children have grown and flown, 
and there are just the two of you 
again. Even under these circum- 
stances there is great meaning to 
home evening. 

You two are a family. There 
are supports to strengthen, bonds 
to build, and ties to weld. It is 
a time when two people who 
mean more to each other than to 
anyone else in the world enjoy 
each other. There is much to 
learn, and this family hour can be 
a source of knowledge. 

Take turns giving the lesson. 
Discuss each point freely. Express 
your own convictions, but at the 
same time try to understand your 

Understanding not just of the 
Chu,rch doctrines but of the depths 
of each other can be discovered 
at this time. Studying together, 

praying together, and playing 
together can bring heaven a 
little nearer. In this closeness 
there can be relaxation even in 

One couple makes this evening 
a time of surprises: the surprise 
of thought, the surprise of under- 
standing, and the surprise of a 
special treat. One week the wife 
will have prepared candy, punch, 
or cookies she knows to be a 
favorite of her mate. Another 
time he will produce a special 
candy bar or a small box of nuts 
to be enjoyed, or once in a while 
after the lesson he will invite her 
to go for a ride, ending at the ice 
cream parlor. 

Every week at this time there is 
the treat of just being together, 
with the television set turned off, 
the telephone ignored, and study- 
ing what those in authority suggest 
we learn. This family hour can 
be a precious, happy, rewarding in- 
terval in two lives. FBP 

April 1967 


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Let's make 
our target 

'The ERA 
in every 


Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

And So He Succeeded 

% A /e would touch for a moment some principles from the life of 
\/ \/ Lincoln, as pertinent to the present as ever they were to the 
V Vpast. At a time when some seem overprivileged and some feel 
underprivileged, and many revolt, and many drop out and don't prepare 
themselves, we are reminded that "Lincoln knew toil. . . . He knew cold 
and hardship . . . want and hunger. . . . Nature chastened him. She 
taught him that she cannot be deceived, or cheated, . . . [and] gave him 
an honesty ... of his very bone and muscle." 1 "He was born in log 
cabin without heat, running water; or any modem convenience . . . ill- 
fed, ill-clothed, ill-housed. . . . His schooling was limited to a few scattered 
weeks, under teachers whose own schooling had been meager," Bruce 
Barton has reminded us; and further: "According to a philosophy now 
widely current, this . . . should have convinced him . . . that he was 
doomed to failure. . . . But no one told him this. Instead, he was told 
that he was fortunate because he had been born in a country where any 
boy might properly aspire to even the highest success, . . . that self- 
discipline and hard work were his only path to salvation, . . . that the 
privilege of self-government involved the responsibility of self-support. . . . 
He had every excuse for discouragement, self-pity, and revolt. . . . But 
no one . . . suggested that it was useless to try" 2 — and so he succeeded, 
not misled by the "myth of the simple days, . . . when everything was 
[presumed to be] easy as contrasted with the present when problems 
are assumed to be hopelessly complex. But there never were any simple 
days."- There were always problems. There were always reasons, 
real or otherwise, for the faint of heart to feel sorry for themselves. And 
to the young of this day, indeed to all of us, this is one of the lessons of 
Lincoln: that the real chances are not gone, that the real values are 
within the man— his mind, his heart; that humble beginnings need not 
be a barrier; that the standard of living may not be so important as 
the standard of thinking. With faith, humility, work, courage, char- 
acter—there are opportunities everywhere. No one. young or old, has 
right or reason to do other than prepare and improve himself and take 
his place in self-respect and serve in honor and honesty. This we learn 
from Lincoln. 

#"The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broad- 
casting System February 12, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

Alfred M. Landon, "True Humility," delivered at the 
Lincoln Day dinner, National Republican Club, New 
York, February 12, 1937. 2 Bruce Barton, "The 
Faith of Abraham Lincoln— A Lesson for Today," 
delivered at Lincoln Day dinner of the Buffalo 
Athletic Club, Buffalo, New York, and broad- 
cast over the Mutual Broadcasting System 
February 12, 1940. 


The Church 
Moves On 

January 1967 

New stake presidencies sus- 
tained: Cedar Rapids (Iowa) 
Stake, President DuWayne H. 
Banks and counselors Winston Jae 
Reese and Robert E. Roberts; Red- 
wood (California) Stake, President 
Richard G. Miller and counselors 
Gene B. Welling and Loren D. 

Grand Coulee North (Wash- 
ington) Stake was organized 
under the direction of Elder Mark 
E. Petersen of the Council of the 
Twelve and Elder John Longden, 
Assistant to the Twelve, with Leslie 
H. Boyce sustained as president 
and Garnett R. Port and Steele T. 
Freer as counselors. When Elder 
Petersen organized the Grand 
Coulee Stake April 18, 1954, he an- 
nounced that the stake was the 
213th stake functioning. This time 
he announced that Grand Coulee 
North Stake was the 426th-that the 
number of stakes in the Church 
had doubled in less than 13 years. 
Elder Longden had also been at 
the Grand Coulee Stake organiza- 
tion, representing the Church wel- 
fare committee. 

February 1967 

This is the month of the Pri- 
mary Penny Parade, which 
helps support the Primary Chil- 
dren's Hospital in Salt Lake City. 

Beginning today full-time mis- 
sionaries will receive their call to 
their field of labor in the language 
native to the missionary. For 
some time wards and other areas 
in places where the English lan- 
guage is not native have been 
participating in the full-time mis- 

April 1967 

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radio stations at Kansas City, Mis- 
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Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

The Process of Preparing 

Art is long, and Time is fleeting," 1 as Longfellow long ago said. And 
now, more than ever, preparation is long— and life is fleeting— as 
those who are young become ever more aware. And in addition to 
academic credentials, it involves character, morality, dedication, maturity 
of mind and heart. And obviously there is sometimes discouragement 
in the process of preparing, and some temptation to shortcuts, some 
temptation to quit. And at such times we would well remember these 
words from David Starr Jordan: "Our duties to our afterselves are more 
vital than our duties to our present selves. . . ." 2 All of us have felt 
crowded and hard pressed at times and tempted to give up, tempted 
to bypass the best preparation possible. But no one has ever arrived 
at solid attainment without some difficulty and delay. And to you who 
are young and preparing: Don't panic; don't be impatient. Don't worry 
about the time preparation takes. Rather, worry about time wasted, 
about time not spent in preparing. Keep moving. Think deeply. Learn 
thoroughly. Pray earnestly. Be on your way, but never in such a hurry 
as to skim the surface superficially. The direction is more important 
than the speed, and maturing always takes time. Always it takes time 
to arrive at anything really worth wanting. It is still not a world of so- 
called quick success. It takes time and experience to develop the excel- 
lence for which the highest satisfaction is received, the highest price 
paid. And what if it does take time? Everything does. Pleasure does. 
Indolence does. Idleness does. Trivia and mediocrity take time. And 
in a world that spends much time in pursuit of pleasure and that too much 
idealizes idleness, responsible excellence is still the essential factor of 
satisfaction and success— and the Lord God never intended that we 
should do anything but succeed. Those who drop out for trivial reasons, 
those who cease to learn, those who don't continue to increase their 
competence are exceedingly shortsighted. 

*"The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broad- 
casting system February 5, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

'Hefiry Wadsworfh Longfellow, "A Psalm of Life." 
-Dr. David Starr Jordan, The Quest for 
Unearned Happiness. 

Improvement Era 

to the priesthood welfare com- 

Mrs. Reba O. Carling of Salt 
Lake City and Mrs. Leanor J. 
Brown of the English-Speaking 
Branch, Mexico City Stake, have 
been appointed to the general 
board of the Relief Society. 

Church units in the United 
States had special services 
marking this as Boy Scout Sunday. 

Allen M. Swan has been ap- 
pointed to the priesthood 

missionary committee of the 


A new general board of the 
Deseret Sunday School Union was 
announced as follows: Richard E. 
Folland,* general secretary; Clari- 
bel Aldous*; Ruel A. Allred; J. 
Hugh Baird; Catherine Bowles*; 
John S. Boyden*; Marshall T. Bur- 
ton*; Herald L. Carlston*; Calvin 

C. Cook*; Robert M. Cundick*; 
Reed C. Durham, Jr.; Robert L. 
Egbert; Henry Eyring*; Elmer J. 
Hartvigsen*; A. Laurence Lyon; 
Thomas J. Parmley*; Dean A. 
Peterson; Willis S. Peterson*; Blaine 
R. Porter; Warren E. Pugh; Ethna 
Reid; Wayne F. Richards; G. Rob- 
ert Ruff*; Alexander Schreiner*; 
Joseph Fielding Smith, Jr.*; Donna 

D. Sorensen*; Lorin F. Wheel- 
wright*; Frank S. Wise*; Clarence 

E. Wonnacott*; and Ralph Wood- 
ward. (* Indicates membership on 
previous board.) 

The First Presidency this week 
issued a statement in support of the 
Heart Fund campaign during 

Utah State University Stake 
II was formed by a division 
of Utah State University Stake at 
Logan, with Reynold K. Watkins 
sustained as president and Charles 
L. Hyde and Dan J. Workman as 
counselors. The stake was organ- 
ized under the direction of Elder 
Harold B. Lee of the Council of 
the Twelve and Elder William J. 

April 1967 

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April 67 Er; 



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Critchlow, Jr., Assistant to the 
Twelve. The new stake is for 
single students: married students 
are in the old stake. 

Fair Oaks Stake was formed by 
a division of American River ( Cali- 
fornia) Stake, with Harvey S. Greer 
as president and Clain W. Smith 
and Robert L. Johnson as coun- 
selors. This stake was organized 
by Elder Delbert L. Stapley of the 

Council of the Twelve and Presi- 
dent S. Dilworth Young of the First 
Council of the Seventy. The two 
stakes organized today bring the 
total number of stakes of the 
Church to 428. 

The appointment of Victor B. 

Cline to the general board of 
the Deseret Sunday School Union 
was announced. 



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December cover: Joseph Smith? 

As an artist I have analyzed all the 
available likenesses of the Prophet. I 
have a copy of the death mask in my 
office and have spent so much time 
with it that I think I could draw it in 
my sleep. The mask proves that every 
likeness in sculpture that has ever 
been made of the Prophet is false! 
Artists miss his facial bone structure 
every time. 

People tend to discount death masks. 
Unlike many other famous figures 
whose masks were made, Joseph died 
in the prime of life — a healthy man. 
Too many other masks are distorted 
by sickness. What a mask lacks are 
the fine points of flesh structure, tone, 
and "life," as well as eyebrow and 
eye details. 

Joseph's nose was not quite as bent 
as is generally represented. You can 
see — and feel — on the mask the point 
at which the cartilage ends and the 
weight of the plaster bends Joseph's 
nose a little bit. In life, and when 
erect, Joseph's jaw came out about 
two centimeters more. Joseph Smith 
had a moon (concave) face. From the 
many side views, he had a long head 
that was wide at the middle but nar- 
rowed down considerably. 

Your cover painting — which I have 
studied and puzzled over before — is an 
interesting primitive. The general 
shape of the face and head are right. 
So are the forehead and hairline. The 
mouth is the most striking evidence: 
it is a Smith mouth. The nose is 
wrong, however. The bridge of 
Joseph's nose was not bent like that. 
But the painting's nose, like Joseph's, 
is large, and the nostrils are the same. 
Because it is a primitive, defects like 
the nose can easily be overlooked. Most 
convincingly, when I hold the death 
mask beside the painting at the same 
angle, the resemblance is striking. The 
most attractive feature is the eyes. 
They are striking — just as Joseph's 
were reported to have been. 

William Whitaker 
Salt Lake City 

Concerning the colored ribbon around 
the subject's neck on the December 
cover, which some have assumed to 
be a Masonic ribbon, I received the 
following reply from Masonic head- 
quarters in Springfield, Illinois. 

"The Grand Lodge of Illinois lifted 
the Charter of the Rising Sun Lodge 

Improvement Era 

No. 12 located in the city of Nauvoo 
in October of 1843. The multi-colored 
ribbon worn around his neck has no 
Masonic significance." 

I don't know whether the Prophet 
belonged to any other fraternal or- 
ganization, but he did belong to the 
Nauvoo Legion, which may have had 
its special colors for certain eschelons. 

Also, concerning the pin on the sub- 
ject's bosom, look at the octagonal pin 
Mary Fielding Smith is wearing in the 
picture of her on page 128 in Life of 
Joseph F. Smith by President Joseph 
Fielding Smith. Interesting. There is 
a family tradition that the Prophet 
had a special pin made for himself, 
Sidney Rigdon, and Hyrum Smith. It 
was a picture style of the brethren at 
the time to wear a pin on the bosom. 
Also check the pictures in the books 
Mary Fielding Smith; Emma Smith, 
Elect Lady; and History of Joseph 
Smith, the latter by Lucy Mack Smith. 

Don C. Corbett 
Dallas, Texas 

Seal of the Prophet 

Concerning the Prophet Joseph Smith's 
seal (December Era), I would like to 
refer you to Documentary History of 
the Church, Vol. 6, p. 72. In a letter 
from James A. Bennett to the Prophet, 
it is stated who made the stone seal 
and how the Prophet could have re- 
ceived it. On page 77 is the Prophet's 
answer to Mr. Bennett. No further 
mention of the seal is found in the 
DHC; therefore, I think it doubtful 
that the Prophet Joseph ever received 
the seal or used it. 

Mrs. Judith A. Hubbell 
Delta Junction, Alaska 

Our Servicemen's Needs 

Through the efforts of the LDS Serv- 
icemen's Committee, I have been 
receiving monthly shipments of Eras 
and a weekly supply of the Church- 
News for distribution among our LDS 
servicemen at Amarillo Air Force 
Base. This distribution procedure was 
begun because of the lack of effective 
support from many home wards and 
branches, which should be taking the 
responsibility to write letters and send 
Church publications to single service- 

Whether a young man has been 
active or not, he has great need for 
this personal home ward contact. We 
have seen many so-called "lost sheep" 
return as a result of sincere encour- 
agement and attention from a home 
quorum. Homesickness and loneliness, 
coupled with the pressures of military 
training, create a tremendous need for 
the ward's active concern. 

Weekly or semi-weekly letters, first 
from the bishop and then the coun- 
selors and quorum members, can help 
greatly during "boot camp." After 
this, and once a man has reached his 
permanent duty station, a monthly 
letter and subscriptions to the Era and 
Church News appear to be adequate. 

Capt. Farrell M. Smith, USAF 

LDS Chaplain 

Amarillo Air Force Base, Texas 

April 1967 

"The Greatest Work . . ." 

In "The Greatest Work in the World," 
January Era, in the left-hand column 
at the top of page 26, the closing 
quotes should have been two para- 
graphs down, after the words "news 

Elder Ezra Taft Benson 
Council of the Twelve 

Eve and I 

A bad old bug is the flu, 

With a name very short it is true. 

But not short are the aches 

And the coughing it takes 

Before with the flu one is through. 

While recovering from an attack of 
the flu, I read the February Era and 
found only one mistake — the poem 
"Eve and I" by Mabel Jones Gabbott 
should have been emblazoned on the 
front cover. With Eve and Mabel 
Jones Gabbott, I will eat the apple 
every time. 

Lucy G. Bloomfield 
Farmington, New Mexico 

I Shall Be Fed 

I have been a member of the Church 
six months and had found it a little 
hard to sustain the General Authori- 
ties, of whom I knew little. Now, 
after reading the November Era, I 



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feel that I can say I will sustain them 
in true sincerity. The Era will be a 
great help to me when I will have to 
live for a while in a country where 
no missionaries are allowed. 

Sue Lucas 

Cambridge, England 

"The Uncertain Promise" 

"The Uncertain Promise" by G. Morris 
Rowley (January and February Era) 
has terrific potential. This story 
would certainly be a wonderful one 
to have reprints made for both home 
teachers and inactive brethren. 

Bishop Lawrence J. McEldowney 

Norwalk, California 

Three cheers for the new Era. Now 

it's a pleasure to read instead of a 
duty. "The Uncertain Promise" 
really hit home with a lot of us. 

Mrs. Ahlgrim 

Los Angeles, California 

More on the New Era 

Just a note to commend you on your 
new look. Oh, it's just great not to 
have to thumb through several pages 
to find the rest of an article. It does 
seem to me that there is less to read 
now — it takes only a short while to 
read the Era from cover to cover. 
The February issue has a poem that 
is absolutely priceless — "Justice" by 
Virginia Kammeyer. 

Lorna M. Schofield 

Mountlake Terrace, 



Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

How certain the future is," 1 Walt Whitman said. And he said it not 
as a question, but in an affirmative sense. Often we fear the future, 
as we consider uncertainty. But there are many who have said that 
basically and ultimately there are more certainties than uncertainties. 
Matthew Arnold, drawing his thought from Emerson, says that "compen- 
sation, finally, is the great law of life. . . ." 2 And in this sense the future 
is certain— as certain as law, as certain as cause and consequence. 
"Chance," said Voltaire, "is a word void of sense; nothing can exist with- 
out a cause." 3 "Things do not [just] happen in this world," said Will H. 
Hayes; "—they are brought about." 4 Or, as Shakespeare said it: "There is 
. . . why and wherefore in all things." 5 Many will argue this and will cite 
exceptions; and we must admit the accidents and untoward events over 
which, seemingly, we could not have had complete control. But even this 
would be minimized if we knew enough and if we fully used what we 
know. We know many rules of safety that we don't always take time to 
put into practice. We are careless; we just take a chance. We know the 
laws of health better than we live them. We know the commandments 
better than we keep them. Of course, there is much we cannot explain in 
terms of present understanding, but we can take comfort in the assurance 
that there is a plan, there is a purpose, there is a just Judge, there is a 
hereafter, there is a heretofore, and an eternal record. And while the 
formula may be complex and beyond our ability to see at times, "There 
is . . . why and wherefore in all things," and we do live by law. And, as 
George Macdonald said it, "The principal part of faith is patience" — 
patience to wait until we can see the more complete picture. Chance will 
not assure happiness or peace or do the work of the world, nor is it ever 
safe to trust to. 

*"The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broad- 
casting System January 29, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

1 Walt Whitman, Starting from Paumanok. 2 M>tthew 

Arnold, Lecture on Emerson. 3 Voltaire, A Philosophical 

Dictionary. 4 Will H. Hays, speech during campaign 

of 1918, featured in New York American, Dec. 

10, 1922. 3 Shakespeare, Henry V, sc. 1. 

°George Macdonald, Weighed and 

Wanting, Ch. 53. 

Improvement Era 

Best of Movies 

By Howard Pearson 

• A Man for All Seasons, chosen 
by the Motion Picture Academy of 
Arts and Sciences as one of the 
five best movies of the year, is a 
thought-provoking and at the same 
time beautiful theater experience. 

It has qualities that, borrowing 
from its own title, make it a movie 
for all seasons. With lovely and 
colorful English countryside, es- 
tates, gardens, and palaces furnish- 
ing some of the background, the 
sixteenth century story leaps alive 
in one beautiful and compelling 
scene after another. 

The story concerns Sir Thomas 
More, who was a Catholic cardinal 
in England and a counsel of King 
Henry VIII. The King wants to 
divorce Queen Catherine of Aragon 
and ma'rry Anne Boleyn. Because 
he cannot obtain the consent of 
the Pope, Henry breaks with the 
Catholic Church and establishes 
the Church of England, whose au- 
thorities approve of the divorce and 
remarriage. The King feels he 
needs the approval of Sir Thomas, 
but Sir Thomas will not give it. 
He refuses to compromise his con- 
science or faith. 

The drama features splendid and 
moving performances by Paul 
Scofield, Orson Welles, Robert 
Shaw, Wendy Hiller, and others. 

Other new movies that families 
might enjoy include three Walt 
Disney productions— Follow Me, 
Boys, a story with a Boy Scout 
background; Monkeys, Go Home, a 
slapstick comedy about monkeys 
that pick olives to help out a former 
astronaut; and Bullwhip Griffin, a 
spoof on outdoor stories. 

The following films also have 
elements for enjoyable family enter- 
tainment: The Poppy Is Also a 
Flower, a television drama about 
the world narcotics problem, which 
soon will be showing in theaters; 
Do You Keep A Lion At Home? a 
delightful Czech story about the 
adventures of two little brothers 
who skate around Prague and run 
into a world of fantasy and unusual 

animals created by cartoons and 
novel lighting effects : The Bible . . . 
in the Beginning, with its inspiring 
story of the first 26 chapters of the 
Old Testament; and How to Suc- 
ceed in Business Without Beally 
Trying, a comedy about a young 
man who follows a guidebook on 
how to achieve success and rises 
to the top from his job as window 
washer within a few weeks. O 

Motion pictures reviewed on this page are neither approved nor recommended by the Church or the Era. 
They are, however, in the judgment of the reviewer, among the least objectionable of the current films. 

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April 1967 


The father cannot 
use authority alone; he 
uses love and 
persuasion with it. 



Authority in the Home 










• The general manager of a large 
manufacturing concern sat com- 
fortably in his office, facing the 
inquiring reporter. 

"What do you do to maintain 
such a smooth operating company 
as this one, and how do you keep it 
profitable?" asked the reporter. 

"Each department has an operat- 
ing manager. He doesn't establish 
the company policy— that is done 
by the directors— but he does put 
that policy into effect. He makes 
it work. I meet him every week. 
My job is to be sure he has a clear 
picture of the policy. Together we 
agree on objectives to meet the 
policy and the methods to be used. 
He proposes them; I approve them. 
They are his. Our weekly meetings 
thereafter are to mark his progress 
within the limits we have set. I 
also meet together each week with 
the department heads, so that no 
department is running without con- 
cern for the other departments. In 
that meeting I act as a coach, 
blending the requirements of each 
into a united effort. Once we agree 
on our course and goals, the de- 
partment heads have full authority 
to go ahead, each in his sphere of 
action. The weekly meeting keeps 
us in harmony. 

"What would happen if you ran 
the business by meeting each de- 
partment head alone without the 
weekly meeting together?" 

"I might be fast enough and 
strong enough, but I couldn't carry 
all the details in my head. Within 
a short time there would be chaos. 
The business would fail." 

"Then is the secret of success 
cooperative planning and delega- 
tion of authority to act?" 

"That is a simple way of stating 
the fact." 

The home is a big business; it has 
departments. These are not as 
large or as complicated as a 
corporation, but they are large in 
the individual lives of the family. 
The father is the president and 
general manager. Until the chil- 
dren are grown enough to be given 
departments, these departments 
are divided between father and 
mother. Perhaps there are only 
two departments : the home, headed 
by the mother, and financing, 
headed by the father. 

It is important that there be a 
weekly meeting of department 
heads so they do not work at cross 
purposes. And unlike a business, 
the father as the general manager 
of the family handles things by 

love and persuasion. He cannot 
fire a department head if things 
don't go right. He can love and 
persuade and compromise his 
opinions and his directives as his 
wife also counsels and gives mean- 
ingful advice. She learns that she 
too is responsible for decisions. 

It is a fact that most executive 
heads of big businesses operate by 
persuasion. Someone once said to 
William Knudsen, who was at the 
time president of General Motors, 
"It must be wonderful to have all 
the authority in your hands." 

"It is," said Mr. Knudsen. "And 
the wonder of it is that the more 
one has of it, the less he can use it." 

This is also true in a family. The 
father cannot use authority alone; 
he uses love and persuasion with 
it. Then his authority pervades all 
things because it is based on the 
following principle established by 
the Lord: "No power or influence 
can or ought to be maintained 
by virtue of the priesthood, only by 
persuasion, by long-suffering, by 
gentleness and meekness, and 
by love unfeigned; 

"By kindness, and pure knowl- 
edge, which shall greatly enlarge 
the soul without hypocrisy, and 
without guile." (D&C 121: 41-42. )0 

April 1967 


Presiding Bishopric's Page 

Strengthen the Bridge Between Adult Leaders and Youth 

• Those who are called to lead 
youth should be aware of a few 
general leadership principles that, 
when employed, bring success in 
planning and carrying out activities 
of the Aaronic Priesthood- Youth 
activity committee. Successful ac- 
tivities start out when all the 
participants are involved in the 
early phases of planning. The 
youth should be responsible for the 
selection, planning, and, as much as 
possible, implementation of the 
specific activities. The role of the 
adult leader should be that of an 
adviser, offering guidance. 
The adult leader can often 

help by asking questions that 
should be designed to point up 
areas that need further planning or 
that should be reviewed more 
closely. He should be careful that 
in his desire to ensure success, he 
does not deprive youth of oppor- 
tunity to grow through their own 
experience! The adult leader has 
ultimate responsibility for approv- 
ing the planned activities. While 
granting latitude to youth, it is im- 
perative that adult leaders do not 
abdicate their supervisory role. 

1. Encourage Enthusiasm: Ex- 
pectancy can do much to influence 
behavior. An attitude on the part 

of adult leaders that reflects con- 
fidence in and respect for youth is 
a strong, positive force that can be 
used to guide the teenagers along 
wholesome paths. Avoid an atti- 
tude of doubt, suspicion, and ex- 
pectancy of poor performance. 
Motivate the youth to participate 
in group spirit, to be creative, and 
to follow through with their pro- 
posals. Expect the best. Don't be 
satisfied with less than adequate 
performance in the process of se- 
lecting, planning, and carrying out 
planned activities. 

2. Set Limitations: It is extremely 
important to make clear the boun- 


Improvement Era 

daries and limitations as well as 
the freedom youth can plan on. 
Do not expect them to make an 
impossible choice. If it is known 
to you that certain activities are 
prohibitive, make this known to 
them. However, within the per- 
missible limits the adult leaders 
should offer minimal interference 
with the youth group process and 
democratic actions. 

3. Listen and Learn: Listening 
is work. Much can be learned 
about youth and their world if we 
watch and listen. Planning and 
participating in activities provides 
an excellent climate in which to 
gain this understanding. If the 
adult leader has been a part of the 
complete process leading up to a 
specific activity, he will be in a 
good position to more fully inter- 
pret the significance of the young 
people's world and behavior. 

4. Always Set the Example: 
Adults should be themselves and 
not attempt to impersonate teen- 
agers. Some adults are very casual 
and informal; they mix well in 
sports and social settings. This is 
good. If, however, an adult leader 
feels comfortable in a more formal 
atmosphere, he should behave in a 
manner congruent with his own 
ideas but he should never force the 
youth to comply with his adult way. 

5. Help Him Across the Chasm: 
Remember— youth is a process of 
transition, becoming an adult, leav- 
ing the security of teenage peer 
loyalties behind, and reaching to- 
ward the adult world. Some youth 
will, however, feel more loyalty to 
their peer group and will view any- 
one over 30 years of age as an out- 
sider to their group. It is very 
important to help teenagers bridge 
this gap by understanding and re- 
specting the things of their world. 

Often we deride those things we 
do not know or understand. We 
often make derogatory comments 

April 1967 

about, and in the hearing of, teen- 
agers without really attempting to 
understand. There is often a strong 
attempt to make them conform to 
"our way." It is very important to 
accept them as they are and where 
they are, with whatever levels of 
social skill or grace they possess, 
and, by interacting with them, set 
an example that can lead to more 
fun, greater companionship, and, 
most important, growth. 

6. If There Is Anything Praise- 
worthy ... In some cases we as 
adults should take heed of the new 
and creative innovations of young 
people. We should not hesitate to 
stand firm and hold to our own 
values, but we should also acknowl- 
edge a good idea or unusual social 

7. They Behave the Way They 
Feel— Make Them Feel Good: In 
any discussion or problem-solving 
situation the first thing most peo- 
ple attempt is to define the prob- 
lem. Next, they jump to find a 
solution. Rarely will they check 
with other individuals or the group 
to see how they feel about the 
problem. The feelings and emo- 
tions of youth are a vital part of 
their behavior and should be 
sought out and explored in order 
to understand them. Adult leaders 
should understand each person's 
feelings if they are to better under- 
stand and influence behavior of the 
youth with whom they work. 

8. Questions and Answers Open 
the Door: If you ask a teenager a 
question, accept the answer you 
are given. If you are fortunate 
enough to be asked a question, 
honor it with thought and con- 
sideration. But not too many words, 

Your attention to him will help 
develop his self-esteem and also 
strengthen the bridge that spans 
the gap between you, the adult, 
and him, the teenager. O 

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These Times 

"he Law of Families 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 

Always Something to Decide 

Each of us has to render a decision," said David Starr Jordan, "to 
say yes or no a. hundred times when our grand-fathers were called 
upon a single time." 1 There are more choices, more variety of 
offerings than once there were. There is always something to decide: 
what to be, what to do— as to" temptation; as to every use of time. Always 
we come back to the question of choice, of preference, of standards. 
And always we come back to an awareness that one of the greatest lessons 
that youth could learn is the lesson of personal responsibility. "A man 
is already of consequence in the world when it is known that he can be 
relied on," said Samuel Smiles; "that when he says he knows a thing, he 
does know it— that when he says he will do a thing, he can do, and 
does it. . . . Not a day passes without its discipline, whether for good or 
for evil. There is no act, however trivial, but has its train of conse- 
quence. . . ." 2 "The difficulty in life is the choice," as George Moore 
said it. 3 Of course we cannot tell anyone, young or old, what variety of 
choices he is going to face each day from the great variety that Dr. Jordan 
refers to, but the most important decisions are still decisions of principle: 
what is good and what isn't good, what is right and what isn't right, 
whether to take or not to take what isn't his; whether to account or not 
to account for all that is entrusted to him; whether to use or not to use 
what is or isn't good; whether to work honestly; whether to live faithfully 
to family, to marital vows. One cannot avoid decision. One must decide 
something. And the vital thing is facing the facts, and not considering 
impossible anything that ought to be done, and not considering as right 
anything that shouldn't be done. An unknown author left us this one short 
summarizing sentence: "If a thing is right it can be done; if wrong, it can 
be done without." In other words, don't flirt and dabble on the edge of 
wrongdoing. "If a thing is right it can be done; if wrong, it can be done 
without." This is a good place to begin in considering all decisions. 

*"The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broad- 
casting System January 22, 1967. Copyright 1967. 

!Dr. David Starr Jordan, The Call of the Twentieth Cen- 
tury: An Address to Young Men (Boston: American 
Unitarian Association). 2 Samuel Smiles, Character: 
Influence of Character, Ch. 1 (Chicago: Bedford, 
Clark Co., 1872). "George Moore, Bending 
of the Bough, Act. IV. 

By Dr. G. Homer Durham 

President, Arizona State University 

A plight of modern, 

orderly society 

is that so many 

families still live in 
near anarchy at home. 

• One of the larger tasks awaiting 
fulfillment is the refinement, in 
each home, of what may be called 
"family law." The intelligence with 
which this task is approached may 
determine future social develop- 

Each family, in its internal ar- 
rangements, has its own rules. Let 
us refer to these rules as the law 
of the family. In some measure the 
laws of the family correspond to 
the laws of the nation, state, com- 
munity, or city. In other ways they 
resemble the rules and regulations 
of industrial corporations, churches, 
and other bodies. 

The law of a given family may 
have been predetermined by the 
religious, social, economic, or poli- 
tical affiliations of its members. 
But the law of the family differs 
from the law of these larger institu- 
tions. The law of the family, unlike 
the principles of the Church, the 
regulations of a business, or the 
statutes and ordinances of a civil 
society, is usually unwritten. 

Furthermore, although the rules 
governing internal family life re- 
flect broad principles, they are 
generally more specific and de- 
tailed. Their applications affect 


Improvement Era 

specific individuals in specific ways 
at specific times. The law of the 
use of toothbrushes, for example, 
although unwritten in most homes, 
is more detailed than the laws af- 
fecting personal property as known 
in a national system of jurispru- 

The point of our concern should 
be whether or not, in the present 
world, the law of families is useful, 
uplifting, and effective. It is ob- 
vious with families, as it is with 
nations, that the nature and char- 
acter of the law will vary from 
family to family. Whereas anarchy 
no longer exists, or rarely does, in 
the world of states and nations, 
many families live in the virtual 
absence of family law. They live, 
internally, in homes characterized 
by the absence of family law. They 
live in anarchy at home, surrounded 
by the legislation of the city, the 
nation, the club, the church, the 
industrial organization, the school. 
Were it not for the law of these 
non-family organizations, such fam- 
ilies would soon lack identity. 

A thesis can be postulated in 
these times that, as the family has 
failed as a legislative instrument 
for its own sake, so the other insti- 
tutions of society have had to 
multiply their enactments. Since it 
would be unreasonable to expect 
several million families in one 
nation to legislate uniformly, there 
are naturally other impelling rea- 
sons why governments, businesses, 
and other institutions have had to 
extend and refine their law-making 
functions. But the corollary of the 
thesis would still contend that there 
is much that the home and the 
family have neglected. 

A second thesis may be derived: 
no matter what quality of family 
law exists in a given home, its 
quality is capable of improvement. 
This should be our major concern. 
We may, for example's sake, con- 
trast law with other home matters. 

The quality of music, for in- 
stance, varies widely from home to 

home. Some homes have no music, 
whether of human voice or of in- 
strument. Others have both voices 
and instruments and produce sound 
ranging from quaint to raucous. 
Some homes approach music from 
a foundation of appreciation that 
includes the Chopin etudes, the 
Beethoven sonatas and symphonies, 
and other classics. Others never es- 
cape the cultural captivity of the 

Ionian scale and its do-re-mi. So it 
is with the artistic climate of homes 
—their prowess and capacity as edu- 
cational institutions, as hostels, as 
restaurants, as economic and re- 
ligious communities. So, too, is it 
with the law of families, ranging 
from anarchic, through primitive, 
to cultivated, well-understood and 
established principles of moral 
sensibility. — ► 

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How can the law of a home be 
improved? The matter is both 
simple and difficult. It is usually 
simple to formulate rules, to extend 
and enlarge them. It is more diffi- 
cult to insure their efficacy, reason- 
ableness, and acceptance. Rather 
than postulate the well known roles 
of father, mother, children, rela- 
tives, and non-family members in a 
given home, our prospect may be 
enhanced by comparing the growth 
and development of law in civil 
society. Law in civil society, after 
all, has acquired its most cultivated 
and refined form, supporting a 
large and influential body of pro- 
fessional practitioners, the lawyers. 
Perhaps the law of families can 
benefit by a comparative view. 

Woodrow Wilson in The State 
(1889) said that for law to exist, 
two conditions must exist. First, 
there must be an "organic commu- 
nity capable of having a will of its 
own." Presumably most families 
can qualify as "organic communi- 
ties," even if the expression of its 
"will" is limited to the law of tooth- 
brush use, family prayers, or the 
hanging up of clothes. Second, the 
community (family) must have 
"some clearly recognized body of 
rules to which that community has, 
whether by custom or enactment, 
given life, character, and effective- 
ness." Wilson believed that the 
nature and character of each nation 
was reflected in its law. It is quite 
possible that the nature and char- 
acter of each family is also reflected 
in its law, whether of the tooth- 
brush or of other phases of home 

The chief sources of law in civil 
society have been religion and 
custom. Custom develops from the 
habits and ways of people. The law 
of many homes may therefore be 
somewhat rude, as their habits are 
rude. If custom has not been 
touched by the refining influences 
found in religion, the home, as with 
civil society, may be a "backward" 
community. After custom and 

Improvement Era 

religion, adjudication, decision- 
making, becomes the chief molder 
of the law. If adjudication in the 
home follows enlightened principles 
of truth, common consent, equity, 
and justice, and the "cake of cus- 
tom" has been so enlivened, the law 
of the home outruns anarchic rude- 
ness. If adjudication is unenlight- 
ened, dictatorial, and arrogant, the 
law of the home may suffer 

The great upward event in the 
development of civil legal systems 
has always come when the prin- 
ciples and habits found in custom, 
religion, and adjudication have 
been subjected to enlightened dis- 
cussion. This has opened the way 
for the greatest invention in the 
world of civil law, namely, legisla- 
tion, or the conscious effort to im- 
prove a given set of rules by 
general, formal, and prospective 

Coupled with the invention of 
legislation, whether by a tribal 
headman, king, or representative 
assembly, is the idea that a given 
piece of legislation should be sub- 
ject to change or amendment in the 
light of additional knowledge or 
conditions. The idea of legislation 
and the idea of continuous revela- 
tion in religion have, therefore, 
something in common. Along with 
legislation, and following it, came 
the knowledge that someone has to 
have specific responsibility for the 
wise and just administration of 
the law. So also with legislation in 
the home. 

Can the family apply these prin- 
ciples? I believe any family can, 
and therefore profit by conscious 
effort to upbuild the quality of law 
in the home. The possibility that 
"the law" in our own very special 
home may have been left to exter- 
nal forces, or to chance, invites 
serious thought. "And now a com- 
mandment I give unto you— if you 
will be delivered you shall set in 
order your own house. . . ." (D&C 
93:43.) O 

April 1967 



Store your wheat, flour, beans, 
sugar, coal, clothing, and 
other items in lock-tight new 
or renovated steel drums, com- 
plete with liners, gaskets, 
and covers. 



49 South 5th West 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Write or call for prices 

and other details or 

visit our plant. 

Phone: 322-3529 


Your Ski/l in 
First Aid 
May Spef/ the 
$m Difference ! 

Be prepared! Earn a Red 

Cross Certificate . . . 

yours by completing a 

course in first aid and safety 


Health and Safety Ed. 121x 

Act today! 

HOME STUDY, e-4-67 

Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 
Please send your Home Study Catalog to: 

NAME _..._ _ . 




The Improvement Era 

uses your 

Zip Code 
and hopes you use 

yours, too! 


End of an Era 

One harried bishop we know 
has thought of hooking his 
telephone to a recording that 
greets late-night callers with 
these words: "This is the 
bishop's residence. Have you 
called your home teachers? 7 ' 1 ' 
— Submitted by Dennis H. Rose, 
San Jose, California 

At a Relief Society work meeting 
in our Brigham Young University 
ward, the lesson one day was 
on ironing clothes, after which 
the closing song was announced 
as "Let Us All Press On." 
— Submitted by Catherine N. 
Russell, Fremont, California 

Overweight is often just 

Man was designed for a 
social being ; he was made 
to cultivate, beautify, 
possess, enjoy and govern 
the earth ; and to fill it 
with myriads of happy, free 
and social intelligences. 
-Parley P. Pratt 

"Say, Captain, I'm seasick. 
How far are we from land?" 
"About three miles." "Which 
way?" "Straight down." 

Blossom of the almond trees, 
April's gift to April's bees. 
— -Edwin Arnold, "Almond 

Count that day won when, turning 
on its axis, this earth imposes no 
additional taxes. — Franklin Pierce Adams 

"We will not play on Sunday. 
We believe in athletics, but 
they do not supersede the 
Ten Commandments." 
— President Ernest L: Wilkinson 
of Brigham Young University, 
explaining why BYU's 
basketball team would not 
play a postponed game in 
Chicago January 29. 

A great many people think they 
are thinking when they are 
merely rearranging their 
prejudices. — William James 

"End of an Era" will pay $3 for humorous anecdotes and experiences relating to Latter-day Saint way of life. Maximum length 150 words. 

Life Among the Mormons 

Stake Visitors 

Virginia Maughan Kammeyer 

Upon the stand they're seated 
In impressive little groups — 
Distinguished stake board visitors, 
Here to review the troops. 

They listen to reportings 

With polite, attentive ear, 

And look as though they'd wandered 

From a more exalted sphere. 

Next Month: Ward Picnic 

The hardest tumble a man 

can make is to fall over his own 

bluff. — Ambrose Bierce 

With the calm patience of the 

woods I wait 

For leaf and blossom when God 

gives us Spring! 

—John Greenleaf Whittier, "A Day" 

It is a wonderful thing to be 
anchored in the truth. When one 
is anchored to a testimony 
that God has spoken in this 
dispensation, that he has revealed 
his truth, there is little danger 
of one's becoming moved from 
one's place by any false theory, 
or any half truth, or any false 
accusation, that may be 
brought into his life. 
—President David O. McKay 


Improvement Era 

Chapels built of Interstate 


show economy in low original cost 
and low maintenance cost. 

Brick itself is maintenance free, permanent and fire safe. As a result, the 
longer the chapel stands, the greater the savings in maintenance and insur- 
ance. New Colors, new Textures in brick by INTERSTATE offer a beauty 
that cannot be attained by any other building material. 


3100 SOUTH 1100 EAST 



Second Class Postage Paid 
at Salt Lake City, Utah 

At last! 

A tax break 
for the 

A Beneficial Life 
Retirement Plan can qualify 
you for a tax deduction of 
up to 100% of your 

Under the terms of the new Keogh 
Bill, self-employed persons will be 
eligible to deduct contributions 
toward a qualified retirement plan. 
Beneficial Life has such a plan to 
suit your specific needs . . . talk it 
over with your Beneficial agent. 
Take advantage of this important 
tax break for the self-employed — now! 




Virgil H. Smith, Pres. 

Salt Lake City, Utah